Muscle Discussions

Copyright Feb 2003 Ted Nissen.

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1       ABDUCTOR DIGITI MINIMI (FOOT) 1name. 4

2       ABDUCTOR DIGITI MINIMI (HAND) 5

3       ABDUCTOR HALLUCIS. 7

4       ABDUCTOR POLLICIS BREVIS. 8

5       ABDUCTOR POLLICIS LONGUS. 9

6       ADDUCTOR BREVIS. 10

7       ADDUCTOR HALLUCIS. 12

8       ADDUCTOR LONGUS. 14

9       ADDUCTOR MAGNUS. 16

10         ADDUCTOR POLLICIS. 17

11         ANCONEUS. 19

12         BICEPS BRACHII 21

13         BICEPS FEMORIS (Lateral Hamstring) 22

14         BRACHIALIS. 24

15         BRACHIORADIALIS. 25

16         BUCCINATOR. 27

17         BULBOCAVERNOSUS (BULBOSPONGIOSUS) 29

18         CILIARY MUSCLE. 30

19         COCCYGEUS (ISCHIOCOCCYGEUS) 32

20         CORACOBRACHIALIS. 32

21         CORRUGATOR SUPERCILII 33

22         CRICOARYTENOID LATERAL & POSTERIOR. 34

23         CRICOPHARYNGEUS. 35

24         CRICOTHYROID. 36

25         DELTOID ANTERIOR. 38

26         DELTOID MIDDLE. 40

27         DELTOID POSTERIOR. 40

28         DEPRESSOR ANGULI ORIS. 41

29         DEPRESSOR LABII INFERIORIS. 43

30         DEPRESSOR SEPTI 43

31         DIAPHRAGM. 44

32         DIGASTRIC ANT & POST BELLY (SUPRAHYOID) 46

33         DILATOR PUPILLAE. 48

34         DORSAL INTEROSSEI (FOOT) 49

35         DORSAL INTEROSSEI (HAND) 50

36         EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS BREVIS. 51

37         EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS LONGUS. 52

38         EXTENSOR CARPI ULNARIS. 53

39         EXTENSOR DIGITI MINIMI 54

40         EXTENSOR DIGITORUM. 55

41         EXTENSOR DIGITORUM BREVIS. 56

42         EXTENSOR DIGITORUM LONGUS. 57

43         EXTENSOR HALLUCIS BREVIS. 58

44         EXTENSOR HALLUCIS LONGUS. 59

45         EXTENSOR INDICIS. 60

46         EXTENSOR POLLICIS BREVIS. 61

47         EXTENSOR POLLICIS LONGUS. 62

48         EXTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE=ANT DIV. 63

49         EXTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE=LAT DIV. 64

50         EXTERNAL ANAL SPHINCTER. 65

51         EXTERNAL INTERCOSTALS. 66

52         EXTRINSIC AURICULAR MUSCLES. 67

53         FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS. 68

54         FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS. 69

55         FLEXOR DIGITI MINIMI BREVIS (FOOT) 70

56         FLEXOR DIGITI MINIMI BREVIS (HAND) 71

57         FLEXOR DIGITORUM BREVIS. 72

58         FLEXOR DIGITORUM LONGUS. 72

59         FLEXOR DIGITORUM PROFUNDUS. 73

60         FLEXOR DIGITORUM SUPERFICIALIS. 74

61         FLEXOR HALLUCIS BREVIS. 75

62         FLEXOR HALLUCIS LONGUS. 76

63         FLEXOR POLLICIS BREVIS. 77

64         FLEXOR POLLICIS LONGUS. 78

65         FRONTALIS (EPICRANIUS) 79

66         GASTROCNEMIUS. 80

67         GEMELLUS INFERIOR (1 of 6 Deep Lateral Rotators of Femur) 81

68         GEMELLUS SUPERIOR (1 of 6 Deep Lateral Rotators of Femur) 82

69         GENIOGLOSSUS. 83

70         GENIOHYOID (SUPRAHYOID) 84

71         GLUTEUS MAXIMUS. 85

72         GLUTEUS MEDIUS. 86

73         GLUTEUS MINIMUS ANT & POST. 87

74         GRACILIS. 88

75         HYOGLOSSUS. 89

76         ILIACUS. 90

77         ILIOCOSTALIS CERVICIS. 91

78         ILIOCOSTALIS LUMBORUM. 92

79         ILIOCOSTALIS THORACIS. 93

80         INCISIVUS LABII INFERIORIS. 94

81         INCISIVUS LABII SUPERIORIS. 95

82         INFERIOR LONGITUDINAL LINGUALIS. 96

83         INFERIOR OBLIQUE. 97

84         INFERIOR PHARYNGEAL CONSTRICTOR. 98

85         INFERIOR RECTUS. 99

86         INFRASPINATUS (Rotator Cuff Muscle) 100

87         INTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE (Anterior Division) 101

88         INTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE (Lateral Division) 102

89         INTERNAL INTERCOSTALS. 103

90         INTERSPINALES. 104

91         INTERTRANSVERSARII 105

92         INTRINSIC AURICULAR MUSCLES. 106

93         ISCHIOCAVERNOSUS. 108

94         LATERAL CRICOARYTENOID. 108

95         LATERAL PTERYGOID. 109

96         LATERAL RECTUS. 110

97         LATISSIMUS DORSI 111

98         LEVATOR ANGULI ORIS(CANINUS) 112

99         LEVATOR ANI, ILIAC PART(ILIOCOCCYGEUS) 113

100        LEVATOR ANI, PUBIC PART(PUBOCOCCYGEUS) 114

101        LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS. 115

102        LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS ALAEQUE NASI 116

103        LEVATOR PALPEBRAE SUPERIORIS. 117

104        LEVATOR SCAPULAE. 118

105        LEVATOR VELI PALATINI 119

106        LEVATORES COSTARUM BREVES. 120

107        LEVATORES COSTARUM LONGI 121

108        LONGISSIMUS CAPITIS. 122

109        LONGISSIMUS CERVICIS. 123

110        LONGISSIMUS THORACIS. 124

111        LONGUS CAPITIS. 125

112        LONGUS CAPITIS ANTERIOR. 126

113        LONGUS COLLI 127

114        LUMBRICALS (FOOT) 128

115        LUMBRICALS (HAND) 129

116        MASSETER. 130

117        MEDIAL PTERYGOID. 131

118        MEDIAL RECTUS. 132

119        MENTALIS. 133

120        MIDDLE PHARYNGEAL CONSTRICTOR. 134

121        MULTIFIDUS. 135

122        MUSCULUS UVULAE. 136

123        MYLOHYOID (SUPRAHYOID) 137

124        NASALIS, ALAR PORTION. 138

125        NASALIS (COMPRESSOR & DILATOR NARIS) 139

126        OBLIQUE ARYTENOID & ARYEPIGLOTTICUS. 141

127        OBLIQUUS CAPITIS INFERIOR. 141

128        OBLIQUUS CAPITIS SUPERIOR. 142

129        OBTURATOR EXTERNUS (1 of 6 Deep Lateral Rotators of Femur) 143

130        OBTURATOR INTERNUS (1 of 6 Deep Lateral Rotators of Femur) 144

131        OCCIPITALIS (EPICRANIUS) 145

132        OMOHYOID SUPERIOR & INFERIOR (INFRAHYOID) 146

133        OPPONENS DIGITI MINIMI 148

134        OPPONENS POLLICIS. 148

135        ORBICULARIS OCULI 149

136        ORBICULARIS ORIS. 151

137        PALATOGLOSSUS (Palatoglossal arch; Anterior pillar) 153

138        PALATOPHARYNGEUS (Palatopharyngeal arch; Posterior pillar) 153

139        PALMAR INTEROSSEI (HAND) 155

140        PALMARIS BREVIS. 155

141        PALMARIS LONGUS. 156

142        PECTINEUS. 157

143        PECTORALIS MAJOR CLAVICULAR. 158

144        PECTORALIS MAJOR STERNAL. 159

145        PECTORALIS MINOR. 160

146        PERONEUS BREVIS. 161

147        PERONEUS LONGUS. 162

148        PERONEUS TERTIUS. 163

149        PIRIFORMIS (1 of 6 Deep Lateral Rotators of Femur) 164

150        PLANTAR INTEROSSEI (FOOT) 165

151        PLANTARIS. 166

152        PLATYSMA. 167

153        POPLITEUS. 169

154        POSTERIOR CRICOARYTENOID. 169

155        PROCERUS. 170

156        PRONATOR QUADRATUS. 171

157        PRONATOR TERES. 172

158        PSOAS MAJOR. 173

159        PSOAS MINOR. 174

160        PYRAMIDALIS. 175

161        QUADRATUS FEMORIS (1 of 6 Deep Lateral Rotators of the Femur) 176

162        QUADRATUS LUMBORUM. 177

163        QUADRATUS PLANTAE. 178

164        RECTUS ABDOMINIS (4 Divisions as 1) 179

165        RECTUS CAPITIS ANTERIOR. 180

166        RECTUS CAPITIS LATERALIS. 181

167        RECTUS CAPITIS POSTERIOR MAJOR. 182

168        RECTUS CAPITIS POSTERIOR MINOR. 183

169        RECTUS FEMORIS (Quadriceps Femoris) (1 of 4 Quadriceps) 184

170        RHOMBOID MAJOR. 185

171        RHOMBOID MINOR. 186

172        RISORIUS. 187

173        ROTATORES BREVIS. 188

174        ROTATORES LONGUS. 189

175        SALPINGOPHARYNGEUS. 190

176        SARTORIUS. 191

177        SCALENUS ANTERIOR. 192

178        SCALENUS MEDIUS. 193

179        SCALENUS POSTERIOR. 194

180        SEMIMEMBRANOSUS (Medial Hamstring) 195

181        SEMISPINALIS CAPITIS. 196

182        SEMISPINALIS CERVICIS. 197

183        SEMISPINALIS THORACIS. 198

184        SEMITENDINOSUS (Medial Hamstring) 199

185        SERRATUS ANTERIOR. 200

186        SERRATUS POSTERIOR INFERIOR. 201

187        SERRATUS POSTERIOR SUPERIOR. 202

188        SOLEUS. 203

189        SPHINCTER PUPILLAE. 204

190        SPINALIS CAPITIS. 205

191        SPINALIS CERVICIS. 206

192        SPINALIS THORACIS. 207

193        SPINCTER ANI EXTERNUS. 208

194        SPLENIUS CAPITIS. 209

195        SPLENIUS CERVICIS. 210

196        STAPEDIUS. 211

197        STERNALIS. 212

198        STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID. 213

199        STERNOHYOID (INFRAHYOID) 214

200        STERNOTHYROID (INFRAHYOID) 215

201        STYLOGLOSSUS. 216

202        STYLOHYOID (SUPRAHYOID) 217

203        STYLOPHARYNGEUS. 218

204        SUBCLAVIUS. 219

205        SUBSCAPULARIS (Rotator Cuff Muscle) 220

206        SUPERFICIAL TRANSVERSE PERINEUS (SUPERFICIALIS) 221

207        SUPERIOR LONGITUDINAL LINGUALIS. 222

208        SUPERIOR OBLIQUE. 223

209        SUPERIOR PHARYNGEAL CONSTRICTOR. 225

210        SUPERIOR RECTUS. 225

211        SUPINATOR ?. 226

212        SUPRASPINATUS (Rotator Cuff Muscle) 227

213        TEMPORALIS. 228

214        TENSOR FASCIAE LATAE. 229

215        TENSOR TYMPANI 230

216        TENSOR VELI PALATINI 231

217        TERES MAJOR. 232

218        TERES MINOR (Rotator Cuff Muscle) 233

219        THYROARYTENOID VOCALIS & THYROEPIGLOTTICUS. 234

220        THYTROHYOID (INFRAHYOID) 235

221        TIBIALIS ANTERIOR. 236

222        TIBIALIS POSTERIOR. 237

223        TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS. 238

224        TRANSVERSE ARYTENOID. 239

225        TRANSVERSE LINGUALIS (BODY OF TONGUE) 240

226        TRANSVERSE PERINEUS (PROFUNDUS) 241

227        TRAPEZIUS LOWER (Lower Division) 242

228        TRAPEZIUS MIDDLE. 243

229        TRAPEZIUS UPPER. 244

230        TRICEPS BRACHII 245

231        URETHRAL SPHINCTER. 246

232        VASTUS INTERMEDIUS (QUADRICEPS FEMORIS) (1 of 4 Quadriceps) 247

233        VASTUS LATERALIS (Quadriceps Femoris) (1 of 4 Quadriceps) 248

234        VASTUS MEDIALIS (Quadriceps Femoris) (1 of 4 Quadriceps) 249

235        VERTICAL LINGUALIS (BODY OF TONGUE) 250

236        ZYGOMATICUS MAJOR. 251

237        ZYGOMATICUS MINOR. 252

238. 253

 

 

 

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1      ABDUCTOR DIGITI MINIMI (FOOT) 1name

Back Table of Contents Illustration

1.1   Word Derivation

1.1.1   Abductor=Moves part away from midline

1.1.2   Digit=Finger or toe

1.1.3   Minimi= Little finger or toe

1.2   Origin

1.2.1   Medial and lateral processes of the tuberosity of calcaneus

1.3   Insertion

1.3.1   Lateral side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the fifth toe

1.4   Action

1.4.1   Abducts the fifth toe away from the fourth toe

1.5   Nerve Supply

1.5.1   Nerve

1.5.1.1       Lateral plantar nerve

1.5.2   Roots

1.5.2.1       S2

1.5.2.2       S3

1.6   Synergists

1.6.1   None

1.7   Category

1.7.1   Intrinsic Foot Plantar First Superficial Layer (IFP1)

1.8   View (When Illustrated Individually)

1.8.1   Plantar View (First Plantar Layer)

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2      ABDUCTOR DIGITI MINIMI (HAND)

Back Table of Contents  

2.1   Word Derivation

2.1.1   Abductor=Moves part away from midline

2.1.2   Digit=Finger or toe

2.1.3   Minimi= Little finger or toe

2.2   Origin

2.2.1   Pisiform bone

2.2.2   Tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris

2.3   Insertion

2.3.1   Two slips

2.3.1.1       Ulnar side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the little finger

2.3.1.2       Ulnar border of the extensor expansion of the finger

2.4   Action

2.4.1   Abducts the little finger

2.4.2   Assists in flexing its proximal phalanx at the metacarpophalangeal joint

2.5   Nerve Supply

2.5.1   Nerve

2.5.1.1       Ulnar  (Deep Branch)

2.5.2   Roots

2.5.2.1       C8

2.5.2.2       T1

2.6   Synergists

2.6.1   Flexor digiti minimi brevis

2.6.2   Opponens digiti minimi

2.7   Category

2.7.1   Intrinsic Hand Hypothenar (IHH)

2.8   View (When Illustrated Individually)

2.8.1   Anterior

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3      ABDUCTOR HALLUCIS

Back Table of Contents  

3.1   Word Derivation

3.1.1   Abductor=Moves part away from midline

3.1.2   Hallucis= Hallux or Great toe

3.2   Origin

3.2.1   Medial process of tuberosity of the calcaneus

3.2.2   Flexor retinaculum

3.2.3   Plantar aponeurosis

3.2.4   Intermuscular septum

3.3   Insertion

3.3.1   Medial tendon of the flexor hallucis brevis

3.3.2   Medial side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the big toe

3.4   Action

3.4.1   Abducts the big toe from the mid line of the foot

3.5   Nerve Supply

3.5.1   Nerve

3.5.1.1       Medial plantar

3.5.2   Roots

3.5.2.1       S2

3.5.2.2       S3

3.6   Synergists

3.6.1   None

3.7   Category

3.7.1   Intrinsic Foot Plantar First Superficial Layer (IFP1)

3.8   View (When Illustrated Individually)

3.8.1   Plantar View (First Plantar Layer)

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4      ABDUCTOR POLLICIS BREVIS

Back Table of Contents  

4.1   Word Derivation

4.1.1   Abductor=Moves part away from midline

4.1.2   Pollex= Thumb

4.1.3   Brevis=Short

4.2   Origin

4.2.1   Flexor retinaculum

4.2.2   Tubercles of the scaphoid and trapezium

4.3   Insertion

4.3.1   Radial side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb

4.4   Action

4.4.1   Abduction of the proximal phalanx and the metacarpal of the thumb

4.4.2   Medial rotation of the proximal phalanx and the metacarpal of the thumb

4.5   Nerve Supply

4.5.1   Nerve

4.5.1.1       Median

4.5.2   Roots

4.5.2.1       C8

4.5.2.2       T1

4.6   Synergists

4.6.1   Abductor pollicis longus

4.6.2   Extensor pollicis brevis

4.7   Category

4.7.1   Intrinsic Hand Thenar (ITT)

4.8   View (When Illustrated Individually)

4.8.1   Anterior View

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5      ABDUCTOR POLLICIS LONGUS

Back Table of Contents  

5.1   Word Derivation

5.1.1   Abductor=Moves part away from midline

5.1.2   Pollex= Thumb

5.1.3   Longus=Long

5.2   Origin

5.2.1   Small facet of the ulnar side of the radius near its middle

5.2.2   Lateral side of the dorsal surface on the body of the ulna just below the insertion of the anconeus and the interosseous membrane

5.3   Insertion

5.3.1   The radial side of the base of the first metacarpal

5.4   Action

5.4.1   Abducts the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb

5.4.2   Assists in extension of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb

5.5   Nerve Supply

5.5.1   Nerve

5.5.1.1       Posterior interosseous nerve (deep radial nerve)

5.5.2   Roots

5.5.2.1       C7

5.5.2.2       C8

5.6   Synergists

5.6.1   Abductor pollicis brevis

5.6.2   Extensor pollicis brevis

5.7   Category

5.7.1   Wrist, Hand, and Fingers Posterior Extensors Deep (WHFPED)

5.8   View (When Illustrated Individually)

5.8.1   Posterior

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6      ADDUCTOR BREVIS

Back Table of Contents  

6.1   Word Derivation

6.1.1   Adductor=Moves part towards the midline

6.1.2   Brevis=Short

6.2   Origin

6.2.1   Outer surface of body and inferior ramus of pubis

6.3   Insertion

6.3.1   On a line extending from lesser trochanter to upper part of linea aspera

6.4   Action

6.4.1   Hip adduction

6.4.2   Hip flexion

6.4.3   Hip medial rotation

6.5   Nerve Supply

6.5.1   Nerve

6.5.1.1       Obturator

6.5.2   Roots

6.5.2.1       L2

6.5.2.2       L3

6.5.2.3       L4

6.6   Synergists

6.6.1   Adductor magnus

6.6.2   Adductor longus

6.6.3   Gracilis

6.6.4   Pectineus

6.7   Category

6.7.1   Thigh Adductor Compartment (TAD)

6.8   View (When Illustrated Individually)

6.8.1   Anterior

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7      ADDUCTOR HALLUCIS

Back Table of Contents  

7.1   Word Derivation

7.1.1   Adductor=Moves part towards the midline

7.1.2   Hallucis= Hallux or Great toe

7.2   Origin

7.2.1   Oblique head

7.2.1.1       Bases of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th metatarsals

7.2.2   Transverse head

7.2.2.1       Plantar Metatarsophalangeal ligaments of the 3rd, 4th and 5th toes

7.2.2.2       Deep transverse metatarsal ligaments

7.3   Insertion

7.3.1   Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of big toe

7.4   Action

7.4.1   Adducts the big toe towards the 2nd toe

7.5   Joints

7.5.1   Metatarsophalangeal joint of big toe

7.6   Nerve Supply

7.6.1   Nerve

7.6.1.1       Lateral plantar nerve

7.6.2   Roots

7.6.2.1       S2

7.6.2.2       S3

7.7   Synergists

7.7.1    

7.8   Category

7.8.1   Intrinsic Foot Plantar Third Layer (IFP3)

7.9   View (When Illustrated Individually)

7.9.1   Plantar

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8      ADDUCTOR LONGUS

Back Table of Contents  

8.1   Word Derivation

8.1.1   Adductor=Moves part towards the midline

8.1.2   Longus=Long

8.2   Origin

8.2.1   Front of pubis in angle between crest and symphysis

8.3   Insertion

8.3.1   Middle 1/3 of medial lip of linea aspera

8.4   Joints

8.4.1   Hip

8.5   Action

8.5.1   Adduction

8.5.2   Flexion

8.5.3   Medial rotation

8.6   Nerve Supply

8.6.1   Nerve

8.6.1.1       Obturator

8.6.2   Roots

8.6.2.1       L2

8.6.2.2       L3

8.6.2.3       L4

8.7   Synergists

8.7.1   Gracilis

8.7.2   Adductor magnus

8.7.3   Pectineus

8.7.4   Adductor brevis

8.8   Category

8.8.1   Thigh Adductor Compartment (TAD)

8.9   View (When Illustrated Individually)

8.9.1   Anterior

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9      ADDUCTOR MAGNUS

Back Table of Contents  

9.1   Word Derivation

9.1.1   Adductor=Moves part towards the midline

9.1.2   Magnus=Large

9.2   Origin

9.2.1   POSTERIOR FIBERS

9.2.1.1       Ischial tuberosity

9.2.2   ANTERIOR FIBERS

9.2.2.1       Ramus of ischium

9.2.2.2       Pubis

9.3   Insertion

9.3.1   Line extending from the gluteal tuberosity along the linea aspera

9.3.2   Medial supracondylar line

9.3.3   Adductor tubercle on medial condyle of femur

9.4   Joints

9.4.1   Hip

9.5   Action

9.5.1   Adduction

9.5.2    Extension

9.5.2.1       . Note

9.5.2.1.1    Fibers arising from ischium and ramus of ischium primarily insert distally and aid in hip extension

9.5.3   Flexion

9.5.3.1       Note

9.5.3.1.1   Fibers arising from ramus of pubis insert proximally and aid in hip flexion.

9.5.4   Medial rotation

9.6   Nerve Supply

9.6.1   Posterior fibers

9.6.1.1       Nerve

9.6.1.1.1   Tibial portion of sciatic

9.6.1.2       Roots

9.6.1.2.1   L4
9.6.1.2.2   L5
9.6.1.2.3   S1

9.6.2   Anterior fibers

9.6.2.1       Nerve

9.6.2.1.1   Obturator

9.6.2.2       Roots

9.6.2.2.1   L2
9.6.2.2.2   L3
9.6.2.2.3   L4

9.7   Synergists

9.7.1   Adductor brevis

9.7.2   Adductor longus

9.7.3   Pectineus

9.7.4   Gracilis

9.8   Category

9.8.1   Thigh Adductor Compartment (TAD)

9.9   View (When Illustrated Individually)

9.9.1   Anterior

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10      ADDUCTOR POLLICIS

Back Table of Contents  

10.1 Word Derivation

10.1.1            Adductor=Moves part towards the midline

10.1.2            Pollex= Thumb

10.2 Origin

10.2.1            OBLIQUE HEAD

10.2.1.1   Capitate bone

10.2.1.2   Bases of the 2nd and 3rd metacarpal bones

10.2.2            TRANSVERSE HEAD

10.2.2.1   Distal 2/3 of the palmar surface of the 3rd metacarpal bone

10.3 Insertion

10.3.1            Two heads converge to insert on the ulnar side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb

10.4 Joints

10.4.1            Carpometacarpal (CMJ)

10.4.2            Metacarpophalangeal (MPJ)

10.5 Action

10.5.1            Adduction (1st CMJ) (Thumb)

10.5.2            Adduction (1st MPJ) (Thumb)

10.5.3            Flexion (1st MPJ) (Thumb)

10.6 Nerve Supply

10.6.1            Nerve

10.6.1.1   Ulnar (Deep branch)

10.6.2            Roots

10.6.2.1   C8

10.6.2.2   T1

10.7 Synergists

10.7.1            Flexor pollicis brevis

10.7.2            Flexor pollicis longus

10.7.3            Opponens pollicis

10.8 Category

10.8.1            Intrinsic Hand Thenar (IHT)

10.9 View (When Illustrated Individually)

10.9.1            Anterior

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11      ANCONEUS

Back Table of Contents  

11.1 Word Derivation

11.1.1            Anconeal=Pertaining to elbow

11.2 Origin

11.2.1            Posterior surface of lateral epicondyle of humerus

11.3 Insertion

11.3.1            Lateral side of olecranon process

11.3.2            Posterior surface of proximal portion of ulna

11.4 Joints

11.4.1            Elbow

11.4.2            Radioulnar (RU)

11.5 Action

11.5.1            Extension (Elbow)

11.5.2            Pronation (RU)

11.6 Nerve Supply

11.6.1            Nerve

11.6.1.1   Radial

11.6.2            Roots

11.6.2.1   C7

11.6.2.2   C8

11.6.2.3   T1

11.7 Synergists

11.7.1            Triceps Brachii

11.8 Category

11.8.1            Forearm Extensors (FAE)

11.9 View (When Illustrated Individually)

11.9.1            Posterior

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12      BICEPS BRACHII

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12.1 Word Derivation

12.1.1            Biceps=Two heads of origin

12.1.2            Brachion=Arm

12.2 Origin

12.2.1            Long head

12.2.1.1   Supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula

12.2.2            Short head

12.2.2.1   Apex of coracoid process of the scapula

12.3 Insertion

12.3.1            Radial tuberosity and bicipital aponeurosis

12.4 Joints

12.4.1            Glenohumeral (GH)

12.4.2            Elbow

12.4.3            Radioulnar (RU)

12.5 Action

12.5.1            Flexion (Elbow)

12.5.2            Supination (RU)

12.5.3            Flexion (GH)

12.5.4            Reversed origin-insertion action

12.5.4.1   Both heads of the biceps brachii are active during flexion of the arm at the shoulder joint, with the long head being more active.

12.6 Nerve Supply

12.6.1            Nerve

12.6.1.1   Musculocutaneous

12.6.1.1.1             Separate branches to each head

12.6.2            Roots

12.6.2.1   C5

12.6.2.2   C6

12.7 Synergists

12.7.1            Brachialis

12.7.2            Brachioradialis

12.7.3            Supinator

12.8 Category

12.8.1            Forearm Flexors (FAF)

12.9 View (When Illustrated Individually)

12.9.1            Anterior

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13       BICEPS FEMORIS (Lateral Hamstring)

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13.1 Word Derivation

13.1.1            Biceps=Two heads of origin

13.1.2            Femoris=Femur

13.2 Origin

13.2.1            Long head

13.2.1.1   Ischial tuberosity

13.2.1.2   Sacrotuberous ligament

13.2.2            Short head

13.2.2.1   Lateral lip of linea aspera

13.2.2.2   Lateral supracondylar line of femur

13.2.2.3   Lateral intermuscular septum

13.3 Insertion

13.3.1            Lateral side of the head of the fibula

13.3.2            Lateral condyle of the tibia

13.3.3            Deep fascia on the lateral side of the leg

13.4 Joints

13.4.1            Knee

13.4.2            Hip

13.5 Action

13.5.1            Flexion (Knee)

13.5.2            Lateral rotation (Knee)

13.5.3            Extension (Hip)

13.5.4            Adduction (Hip)

13.5.5            Lateral Rotation (Hip)

13.5.6            Note

13.5.6.1   When the hip is extended the long head of the biceps Femoris is placed at a mechanical disadvantage in knee extension. The short head of the biceps Femoris then becomes the primary knee flexor.

13.5.7            Reversed origin-insertion action

13.5.7.1   The long head gives posterior stability to the pelvis and extends the pelvis on the hip.

13.6 Nerve Supply

13.6.1            LONG HEAD

13.6.1.1   Nerve

13.6.1.1.1             Sciatic (Tibial Portion)

13.6.1.2   Roots

13.6.1.2.1             L5
13.6.1.2.2             S1
13.6.1.2.3             S2

13.6.2            Short head

13.6.2.1   Nerve

13.6.2.1.1             Sciatic (Common peroneal portion)

13.6.2.2   Roots

13.6.2.2.1             L5
13.6.2.2.2             S1
13.6.2.2.3             S2

13.7 Synergists

13.7.1            Semimembranosus

13.7.2            Semitendinosus

13.7.3            Gracilis

13.7.4            Sartorius

13.7.5            Gastrocnemius

13.8 Category

13.8.1            Leg Posterior Flexor Compartment (LPF)

13.9 View (When Illustrated Individually)

13.9.1            Posterior

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14      BRACHIALIS

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14.1 Word Derivation

14.1.1            Brachion=Arm

14.2 Origin

14.2.1            Lower 1/2 of the anterior surface of the humerus

14.3 Insertion

14.3.1            Tuberosity and coronoid process of the ulna

14.4 Joints

14.4.1            Elbow

14.5 Action

14.5.1            Flexion

14.6 Nerve Supply

14.6.1            Nerve

14.6.1.1   Musculocutaneous

14.6.1.2   Radial

14.6.2            Roots

14.6.2.1   C5 (Musculocutaneous)

14.6.2.2   C6 (Musculocutaneous)

14.6.2.3   C7 (Radial)

14.7 Synergists

14.7.1            Brachioradialis

14.7.2            Biceps brachii

14.8 Category

14.8.1            Forearm Flexors (FAF)

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15      BRACHIORADIALIS

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15.1 Word Derivation

15.1.1            Brachion=Arm

15.1.2            Radialis=Radius

15.2 Origin

15.2.1            Proximal 2/3 of the lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus and lateral intermuscular septum

15.3 Insertion

15.3.1            Lateral side of base of styloid process of the radius

15.4 Joints

15.4.1            Elbow

15.4.2            Radioulnar (RU) Distal

15.5 Action

15.5.1            Flexion

15.5.2            Pronation (To midposition when joint is supinated) (RU) Distal

15.5.3            Supination (To midposition when joint is Pronated)  (RU) Distal

15.6 Nerve Supply

15.6.1            Nerve

15.6.1.1   Radial

15.6.2            Roots

15.6.2.1   C5

15.6.2.2   C6

15.6.2.3   C7

15.7 Synergists

15.7.1            Brachialis

15.7.2            Biceps brachii

15.8 Category

15.8.1            Forearm Flexors (FAF)

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16      BUCCINATOR

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16.1 Word Derivation

16.1.1            Bucc=Cheek

16.2 Origin

16.2.1            Upper attachment

16.2.1.1   External surfaces of the alveolar process of the three molar teeth on the maxilla, crossing the maxillary tuberosity to the pterygold hamulus

16.2.2            Middle attachment

16.2.2.1   Anterior border of the pterygomandibular raphe

16.2.3            Inferior attachment

16.2.3.1   External surfaces of the alveolar processes of the three molar teeth on the mandible, crossing the junction of the ramus and body to the posterior end of the mylohyoid line

16.3 Insertion

16.3.1            Upper fibers

16.3.1.1   Blend with upper fibers of orbicularis oris.

16.3.2            Middle fibers

16.3.2.1   Decussate (cross) so that lower and upper ones continue into upper and lower parts of the orbicularis oris

16.3.3            Lower fibers

16.3.3.1   Blend with lower fibers of orbicularis oris

16.4 Action

16.4.1            Compresses the cheeks against the teeth

16.4.2            Draws angle of the mouth laterally.

16.5 Nerve Supply

16.5.1            Inferior buccal branches of the facial nerve (VII)

16.6 Arterial supply

16.6.1            Buccal (Maxillary)

16.6.2            Facial

16.6.3            Transverse facial

16.7 Synergists

16.7.1            Risorius

16.8 Antagonists

16.8.1            Orbicularis oris

16.9 Category

16.9.1            Facial Expression (FE)

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17      BULBOCAVERNOSUS (BULBOSPONGIOSUS)

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17.1 Word Derivation

17.1.1            Bulbus=Bulb

17.1.2            Caverna=Hollow

17.2 Origin

17.2.1            Central tendon of perineum

17.3 Insertion

17.3.1            Inferior fascia of urogenital diaphragm

17.3.2            Corpus spongiosum of penis

17.3.3            Deep fascia on dorsum of penis in male

17.3.4            Pubic arch and root and dorsum of clitoris in female

17.4 Action

17.4.1            Helps expel last drops of urine during micturition

17.4.2            Propel semen along urethra

17.4.3            Assist in erection of the penis in male

17.4.4            Decreases vaginal orifice and assists in erection of clitoris in female

17.5 Nerve Supply

17.5.1            Perineal branch of pudendal nerve

17.6 Synergists

17.6.1             

17.7 Category

17.7.1            Perineum  (PRN)

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18      CILIARY MUSCLE

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18.1 Origin

18.1.1            Scleral spur

18.2 Insertion

18.2.1            Stroma of the choroid

18.3 Action

18.3.1            Modify the shape of the lens to adjust for near (lens thickening) or distant Vision (lens thinning)

18.4 Nerve Supply

18.4.1            Near vision

18.4.1.1   Parasympathetic fibers through the Oculomotor nerve (III), from Edinger-Westphal nucleus

18.4.2            Distant vision

18.4.2.1   Sympathetic fibers from the superior cervical ganglion passing into the eye as the long ciliary nerves

18.5 Arterial supply

18.5.1            Long posterior and anterior ciliary rami from the ophthalmic and lacrimal branches of the internal carotid artery

18.6 Synergists

18.6.1            None

18.7 Antagonists

18.7.1            Parasympathetic and Sympathetic fibers produce antagonistic effects

18.7.2            Parasympathetic fibers

18.7.2.1   Contract the ciliary muscle thereby relaxing the zonal fibers which suspend the lens at its periphery

18.7.2.2   The relaxed lens thickens

18.7.3            Sympathetic fibers

18.7.3.1   Act upon arteries in ciliary body

18.7.3.2   Vasomotor activity increases tension in lens zonal fibers and produces a thinning of the lens

18.8 Category

18.8.1            Eye Ball (EB)

18.9 View

18.9.1            (Note: Lower two s are enlarged horizontal sections.)

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19      COCCYGEUS (ISCHIOCOCCYGEUS)

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19.1 Word Derivation

19.1.1            Coccygeus=Coccyx

19.2 Origin

19.2.1            Ischial Spine

19.3 Insertion

19.3.1            Lower Sacrum

19.3.2            Upper Coccyx

19.4 Action

19.4.1            Supports and slightly raises pelvic floor

19.4.2            Resists intraabdominal pressure

19.4.3            Pulls coccyx forward following defecation or parturition

19.5 Nerve Supply

19.5.1            Nerve

19.5.1.1   Sacral

19.5.2            Roots

19.5.2.1   S3

19.5.2.2   S4

19.6 Synergists

19.6.1             

19.7 Category

19.7.1            Pelvic Floor (PF)

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20      CORACOBRACHIALIS

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20.1 Word Derivation

20.1.1            Coraco=Coracoid process

20.2 Origin

20.2.1            Tip of coracoid process of scapula

20.3 Insertion

20.3.1            Middle of medial border of humerus, opposite deltoid tuberosity

20.4 Joints

20.4.1            Glenohumeral

20.5 Action

20.5.1            Horizontal flexion

20.5.2            Adduction

20.6 Nerve Supply

20.6.1            Nerve

20.6.1.1   Musculocutaneous

20.6.2            Roots

20.6.2.1   C5

20.6.2.2   C6

20.6.2.3   C7

20.7 Synergists

20.7.1            Pectoralis major

20.7.2            Biceps brachii

20.7.3            Anterior deltoid

20.8 Category

20.8.1            Arm Scapular (AS)

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21      CORRUGATOR SUPERCILII

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21.1 Word Derivation

21.1.1            Corrugo=Wrinkle

21.1.2            Supercilium=Eyebrow

21.2 Origin

21.2.1            Medial end of the superciliary arch of the frontal bone

21.3 Insertion

21.3.1            Deep surface of the skin above the midpart of the orbital arch

21.4 Action

21.4.1            : Draws eyebrows medially and down (Frowning muscle)

21.5 Nerve Supply

21.5.1            Temporal branches of the facial nerve (VII)

21.6 Artery supply

21.6.1            Supratrochlear (Branch of ophthalmic)

21.6.2            Supraorbital (Branch of ophthalmic)

21.7 Synergists

21.7.1            Orbicularis oculi

21.7.2            Procerus

21.8 Antagonist

21.8.1            Frontalis

21.9 Category

21.9.1            Facial Expression (FE)

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22      CRICOARYTENOID LATERAL & POSTERIOR

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22.1 Origin

22.1.1            Cricoarytenoid Lateral

22.1.1.1   Upper border of arch of cricoid cartilage

22.1.2            Cricoarytenoid Posterior

22.1.2.1   Posterior surface of lamina of cricoid cartilage

22.2 Insertion

22.2.1            Cricoarytenoid Lateral

22.2.1.1   Muscular process of arytenoids cartilage

22.2.2            Cricoarytenoid Posterior

22.2.2.1   Muscular process of arytenoid cartilage

22.3 Action

22.3.1            Cricoarytenoid Lateral

22.3.1.1   Adducts and medially rotates arytenoid cartilage assisting in closing glottis

22.3.2            Cricoarytenoid Posterior

22.3.2.1   Abducts arytenoid cartilage widening glottis

22.4 Nerve Supply

22.4.1            Vagus (X)

22.4.2            Accessory (XI)

22.5 Synergists

22.5.1             

22.6 Category

22.6.1            Larynx Extrinsic (LXE)

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23      CRICOPHARYNGEUS

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23.1 Origin

23.1.1            Arch of cricoid cartilage

23.2 Insertion

23.2.1            Arch of cricoid cartilage

23.3 Action

23.3.1            Acts as sphincter to prevent air entering esophagus

23.3.2            Relaxes during swallowing

23.4 Nerve Supply

23.4.1            Nerve Plexus

23.4.1.1   Pharyngeal plexus

23.4.2            Roots

23.4.2.1   CN (IX)

23.4.2.2   CN (X)

23.4.2.3   CN (XI)

23.5 Synergists

23.5.1             

23.6 Category

23.6.1            Pharynx longitudinal layer (PXL)

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24      CRICOTHYROID

Back Table of Contents  

24.1 Word Derivation

24.1.1            Crico=Cricoid cartilage of larynx

24.1.2            Thyro=Thyroid gland

24.2 Origin

24.2.1            Anterolateral, external aspect of the cricoid cartilage

24.3 Insertion

24.3.1            Inferior part

24.3.1.1   Anterior border of the inferior cornu of thyroid

24.3.2            Superior Part

24.3.2.1   Posterior part of the lower border of the thyroid lamina

24.4 Action

24.4.1            Elevation of cricoid arch and tilting, back its lamina

24.4.2            Closes anterior interval between the cricoid and thyroid cartilages, thereby, tightening the vocal cords

24.5 Nerve Supply

24.5.1            External branch of the superior laryngeal nerve from the vagus nerve (X)

24.6 Arterial supply

24.6.1            Cricothyroid branch and rami of the superior thyroid artery

24.6.2            Rami from the inferior thyroid artery

24.7 Synergists

24.7.1            Posterior Arytenoids

24.8 Antagonists

24.8.1            Vocalis

24.8.2            Thyroarytenoid

24.9 Category

24.9.1            Larynx Intrinsic (LXI)

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25      DELTOID ANTERIOR

Back Table of Contents  

25.1 Word Derivation

25.1.1            Delta=Triangular

25.1.2            Supercilium=Eyebrow

25.2 Origin

25.2.1            Anterosuperior border of the lateral 1/3 of the clavicle

25.3 Insertion

25.3.1            Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus on the anterolateral surface just above is midshaft

25.4 Joints

25.4.1            Glenohumeral

25.5 Action

25.5.1            Abduction

25.5.2            Horizontal flexion

25.5.3            Medial rotation

25.6 Nerve Supply

25.6.1            Nerve

25.6.1.1   Axillary

25.6.2            Roots

25.6.2.1   C5

25.6.2.2   C6

25.7 Synergists

25.7.1            Middle Deltoid

25.7.2            Posterior Deltoid

25.7.3            Supraspinatus

25.7.4            Pectoralis Major Clavicular

25.8 Category

25.8.1            Arm Scapular (AS)

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26      DELTOID MIDDLE

Back Table of Contents  

26.1 Origin

26.1.1            Superior surface of the acromion process

26.2 Insertion

26.2.1            Deltoid tuberosity of humerus

26.3 Joints

26.3.1            Glenohumeral

26.4 Action

26.4.1            Abduction

26.5 Nerve Supply

26.5.1            Nerve

26.5.1.1   Axillary

26.5.2            Roots

26.5.2.1   C5

26.5.2.2   C6

26.6 Synergists

26.6.1            Anterior Deltoid

26.6.2            Posterior Deltoid

26.6.3            Supraspinatus

26.7 Category

26.7.1            Arm Scapular (AS)

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27      DELTOID POSTERIOR

Back Table of Contents  

27.1 Origin

27.1.1            Inferior margin of spine of scapula

27.2 Insertion

27.2.1            Deltoid tuberosity of humerus

27.3 Joints

27.3.1            Glenohumeral

27.4 Action

27.4.1            Abduction

27.4.2            Horizontal Extension

27.4.3            Lateral Rotation

27.5 Nerve Supply

27.5.1            Nerve

27.5.1.1   Axillary

27.5.2            Roots

27.5.2.1   C5

27.5.2.2   C6

27.6 Synergists

27.6.1            Anterior Deltoid

27.6.2            Middle Deltoid

27.6.3            Supraspinatus

27.7 Category

27.7.1            Arm Scapular (AS)

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28      DEPRESSOR ANGULI ORIS

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28.1 Origin

28.1.1            The oblique line of the mandible, below and lateral to the depressor labii inferioris

28.2 Insertion

28.2.1            The angle of the mouth, mingling with the levator anguli oris, zygomatIcus major, and muscular bands of the orbicularis Oris

28.3 Action

28.3.1            Depresses the modiolus and angle of mouth

28.4 Nerve Supply

28.4.1            Mandibular marginal branch of the facial nerve (VII)

28.5 Arterial supply

28.5.1            Inferior labial branch from the facial artery

28.5.2            Mental branch from the inferior alveolar artery

28.6 Synergists

28.6.1            Platysma (Pars Modiolus)

28.6.2            Depressor Labii Inferioris

28.7 Antagonists

28.7.1            For direct modiolar deviation

28.7.1.1   Levator Anguli Oris

28.7.1.2   Zygomaticus Major

28.7.2            For angle of mouth deviation

28.7.2.1   Lateral Slip of the Levator Labii Superioris

28.7.2.2   Alaeque Nasi

28.7.2.3   Levator Labii Superioris

28.7.2.4   Zygomaticus Minor

28.8 Category

28.8.1            Facial Expression (FE)

28.9  Note

28.9.1            (Denotes Modiolus)

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29      DEPRESSOR LABII INFERIORIS

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29.1 Origin

29.1.1            The oblique line of mandible, between symphysis menti and the mental foramen

29.2 Insertion

29.2.1            The skin of the lower lip, blending and intersecting with its other and with orbicularis oris

29.2.2            Note

29.2.2.1   It is continuous below and laterally with the labial part of the platysma).

29.3 Action

29.3.1            Depresses the lower lip laterally and assists in eversion

29.4 Nerve Supply

29.4.1            Mandibular marginal branch of the facial nerve (VII)

29.5 Arterial supply

29.5.1            Inferior labial branch of the facial artery

29.5.2            Mental branch of the inferior alveolar artery

29.6 Synergists

29.6.1            Platysma (Pars Labialis)

29.6.2            Depressor Anguli Oris

29.7 Antagonist

29.7.1            Orbicularis Oris

29.8 Category

29.8.1            Facial Expression (FE)

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30      DEPRESSOR SEPTI

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30.1 Origin

30.1.1            From the incisive fossa of the maxilla

30.2 Insertion

30.2.1            The mobile part of the nasal septum, deep to the superior labial mucous membrane

30.3 Action

30.3.1            Draws ala of nose downwards and thereby constricts the aperture of naris.

30.4 Nerve Supply

30.4.1            Superior buccal branches of the facial nerve (VII)

30.5 Arterial supply

30.5.1            Septal and alar branches from the superior labial artery

30.6 Synergists

30.6.1            Nasalis

30.7 Antagonist

30.7.1            Dilator Naris

30.8 Category

30.8.1            Facial Expression (FE)

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31      DIAPHRAGM

Back Table of Contents  

31.1 Origin

31.1.1            An approximately circular line passing entirely around the inner surface of the body wall

31.1.2            STERNAL PORTION

31.1.2.1   Two slips from the back of the xiphoid process

31.1.3            COSTAL PORTION

31.1.3.1   The inner surfaces of the cartilages and adjacent portions of the lower 6 ribs on either side, interdigitating with the transverses abdominis

31.1.4            LUMBAR PORTION

31.1.4.1   Medial and lateral arcuate ligaments and right and left crura from the anterolateral surfaces of the bodies and discs of the upper three lumbar vertebrae

31.2 Insertion

31.2.1            The central tendon, which is an oblong sheet forming the summit of the dome

31.3 Action

31.3.1            Principal muscle of respiration

31.3.2            Draws the central tendon downward, during quiet inspiration, pressing against the abdominal visera

31.4 Nerve Supply

31.4.1            Nerve

31.4.1.1   Phrenic (Cervical Plexus)

31.4.2            Roots

31.4.2.1   C3

31.4.2.2   C4

31.4.2.3   C5

31.5 Synergists

31.5.1            External Intercostals

31.5.2            Internal Intercostals

31.5.3            Serratus Posterior Superior

31.5.4            Scalenus Anterior

31.5.5            Scalenus Medius

31.5.6            Scalenus Posterior

31.5.7            Levatores Costarum

31.6 Category

31.6.1            Breathing (B)

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32      DIGASTRIC ANT & POST BELLY (SUPRAHYOID)

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32.1 Origin

32.1.1            Anterior belly

32.1.1.1   Digastric fossa of mandible

32.1.2            Posterior belly

32.1.2.1   Mastoid notch of temporal bone

32.2 Insertion

32.2.1            Intermediate tendon attached to the hyoid via a fibrous loop

32.3 Action

32.3.1            Mandibular depression and hyoid elevation

32.3.2            Note

32.3.2.1   Both bellies act together during swallowing and chewing

32.4 Nerve Supply

32.4.1            Anterior belly

32.4.1.1   Mylohyoid rami from the inferior alveolar branch of the trIgeminal nerve (V3)

32.4.2            Posterior belly

32.4.2.1   Digastric branch facial nerve (VII)

32.5 Arterial supply

32.5.1            Anterior belly

32.5.1.1    Mylohyoid branch of inferior alveolar artery

32.5.1.2   Submandibular branch of the facial artery

32.5.2            Posterior belly

32.5.2.1   Posterior auricular artery and muscular branches of the occipital artery

32.6 Synergists

32.6.1            Mandibular Depression

32.6.1.1   Mylohyoid

32.6.1.2   Geniohyoid

32.6.1.3   Lateral Pterygoid

32.6.1.4   Platysma

32.6.2            Hyoid Elevation

32.6.2.1   Stylohyoid

32.6.2.2   Mylohyoid

32.6.2.3   Geniohyoid

32.7 Antagonists

32.7.1            Mandibular Depression

32.7.1.1   Masseter

32.7.1.2   Temporalis

32.7.1.3   Medial Pterygoid

32.7.2            Hyoid Elevation

32.7.2.1   Sternohyoid

32.7.2.2   Thyrohyoid

32.7.2.3   Omohyoid

32.8 Category

32.8.1            ORAL CAVITY FLOOR (OCF)

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33      DILATOR PUPILLAE

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33.1 Origin

33.1.1            The mesodermal stroma in the periphery of the iris

33.2 Insertion

33.2.1            The iris among the outer parts of the sphincter pupillae fibers

33.3 Action

33.3.1            Dilation of the pupil to adjust for distant vision or diminished light

33.4 Nerve Supply

33.4.1            Sympathetic fibers from the superior cervical ganglion passing as long ciliary nerves to the globe

33.5 Arterial supply

33.5.1            Long posterior and anterior ciliary rami from the ophthalmic and lacrimal branches of the internal carotid artery

33.6 Synergists

33.6.1            None

33.7 Antagonist

33.7.1            Sphincter pupillae

33.8 Category

33.8.1            Eye Ball (EB)

33.9 View

33.9.1            Note

33.9.1.1   Lower 2 s are enlarged horizontal sections

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34      DORSAL INTEROSSEI (FOOT)

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34.1 Origin

34.1.1            There are four dorsal interossei each by two heads from adjacent sides of the metatarsals

34.2 Insertion

34.2.1            Bases of the proximal phalanges and extensor expansion of the tendons of the extensor digitorum longus

34.2.2            The 1st dorsal interosseous (arising from the 1st and 2nd metatarsals) inserts into the medial side of the 2nd toe

34.2.3            The 2nd-4th dorsal interossei insert into the lateral sides of the 2nd 3rd and 4th toes

34.3 Action

34.3.1            Abducts the 2nd, 3rd and 4th toes away from the longitudinal axis of the 2nd toe

34.3.2            Assists in flexing the proximal phalanx

34.3.3            Extends the middle and distal phalanges

34.4 Nerve Supply

34.4.1            Nerve

34.4.1.1   Lateral Plantar

34.4.2            Roots

34.4.2.1   S2

34.4.2.2   S3

34.5 Synergists

34.5.1            Plantar Interossei

34.6 Category

34.6.1            Intrinsic Foot Plantar Fourth Deep Layer (IFP4)

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35      DORSAL INTEROSSEI (HAND)

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35.1 Origin

35.1.1            Each from the 2 metacarpal bones between which it inserts

35.2 Insertion

35.2.1            Bases of the proximal phalanges of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th digits and the extensor expansion

35.3 Action

35.3.1            Abduct index, middle and ring fingers from an axis through the middle finger

35.3.2            All assist in flexing the proximal phalanges of the index, middle and ring fingers at the metacarpophalangeal joints

35.3.3            Extending middle and distal phalanges

35.4 Nerve Supply

35.4.1            Nerve

35.4.1.1   Ulnar (Deep Branch)

35.4.2            Roots

35.4.2.1   C8

35.4.2.2   T1

35.5 Synergists

35.5.1            Lumbricals

35.5.2            Palmar Interossei

35.5.3            Flexor Digitorum Profundus

35.5.4            Flexor Digitorum Superficialis

35.6 Category

35.6.1            Intrinsic Hand Intermediate (Midpalmar) (IHI)

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36      EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS BREVIS

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36.1 Origin

36.1.1            Common extensor tendon from lateral epicondyle of humerus

36.2 Insertion

36.2.1            Posterior surface of base of 3rd metacarpal

36.3 Joints

36.3.1            Wrist

36.4 Action

36.4.1            Extension

36.4.2            Radial Deviation

36.5 Nerve Supply

36.5.1            Nerve

36.5.1.1   Posterior interosseous (deep radial)

36.5.2            Roots

36.5.2.1   C7

36.5.2.2   C8

36.6 Synergists

36.6.1            Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

36.6.2            Extensor Carpi Ulnaris (Extension)

36.6.3            Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

36.6.4            Flexor Carpi Radialis (Radial Deviation)

36.7 Category

36.7.1            Wrist, Hand, and Fingers Posterior Extensors Deep (WHFPED)

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37      EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS LONGUS

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37.1 Origin

37.1.1            Lower 1/3 of lateral supracondylar ridge

37.1.2            Lateral epicondyle (few fibers from)

37.2 Insertion

37.2.1            Posterior surface of base of second metacarpal

37.3 Joint

37.3.1            Wrist

37.4 Action

37.4.1            Extension

37.4.2            Radial Deviation

37.5 Nerve Supply

37.5.1            Nerve

37.5.1.1   Radial

37.5.2            Roots

37.5.2.1   C6

37.5.2.2   C7

37.6 Synergists

37.6.1            Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis

37.6.2            Extensor Carpi Ulnaris (Extension)

37.6.3            Flexor Carpi Radialis (Radial Deviation)

37.7 Category

37.7.1            Wrist, Hand, and Fingers Posterior Extensors Superficial (WHFPES)

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38      EXTENSOR CARPI ULNARIS

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38.1 Origin

38.1.1            By two heads from lateral epicondyle of humerus and middle 1/3 of posterior ridge of ulna

38.2 Insertion

38.2.1            Posterior surface of base of 5th metacarpal

38.3 Joint

38.3.1            Wrist

38.4 Action

38.4.1            Extension

38.4.2            Ulnar Deviation

38.5 Nerve Supply

38.5.1            Nerve

38.5.1.1   Posterior interosseous (deep radial)

38.5.2            Roots

38.5.2.1   C7

38.5.2.2   C8

38.6 Synergists

38.6.1            Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

38.6.2            Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (Extension)

38.6.3            Flexor Carpi Ulnaris (Ulnar Deviation)

38.7 Category

38.7.1            Wrist, Hand, and Fingers Posterior Extensors Superficial (WHFPES)

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39      EXTENSOR DIGITI MINIMI

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39.1 Origin

39.1.1            The common tendon of the extensor digitorum

39.2 Insertion

39.2.1            The tendon of the extensor digitorum at the proximal phalanx of the little finger and into the dorsal expansion of the finger extensor tendons

39.3 Joints

39.3.1            Metacarpophalangeal (MCP)

39.3.2            Interphalangeal (IP)

39.3.3            Wrist

39.4 Action

39.4.1            Extension (Proximal Phalanx Of The Little Finger) (MCP)

39.4.2            Extension (Wrist)

39.4.3            Extension (Middle And Distal Phalanges Especially When The Proximal Phalanx Is Held In Flexion) (IP)

39.5 Nerve Supply

39.5.1             

39.5.1.1   Posterior interosseous (deep radial)

39.5.2             

39.5.2.1   C7

39.5.2.2   C8

39.5.3            NOTE

39.5.3.1   The posterior interosseous nerve is a direct continuation of the deep radial nerve after it has passed through the supinator .

39.6 Synergists

39.6.1            Extensor digitorum.

39.7 Category

39.7.1             

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40      EXTENSOR DIGITORUM

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40.1 Origin

40.1.1            Common extensor tendon from lateral epicondyle of humerus.

40.2 Insertion

40.2.1            By 4tendons, 1 to each finger, each tendon dividing into 3 slips, the middle one attaching to the dorsal surface of middle phalanx and the other 2 uniting to attach to dorsal surface of base of distal phalanx.

40.3 Action

40.3.1            Extends phalanges at the interphalangeal joints, con- tinued action extends the metacarpophalangeal and car- pometacarpal articulations. Assists in extending wrist.

40.4 Nerve Supply

40.4.1            Posterior interosseous, (deep radial) C7, 8.

40.5 Synergists

40.5.1            Extensor indicis, extensor digiti minimi, lumbri- cales.

40.6 Category

40.6.1             

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41      EXTENSOR DIGITORUM BREVIS

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41.1 Origin

41.1.1            The forepart of the supralateral surface of the calcaneus; lateral talocalcaneal ligament and inferior extensor retinaculum

41.2 Insertion

41.2.1            Branches into 3 tendons that insert into the lateral sides of the tendons of the extensor digitorum longus of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th toes.

41.3 Action

41.3.1            Extends the proximal phalanges of the 2rid, 3rd and 4th toes.

41.4 Nerve Supply

41.4.1            Deep peroneal, 81, 2.

41.5 Synergists

41.5.1            Extensor digitorum longus.

41.6 Category

41.6.1             

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42      EXTENSOR DIGITORUM LONGUS

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42.1 Origin

42.1.1            Lateral condyle of the tibia, head and proximal :?/4 of the anterior surface on the body of the fibula, proximal portion of the interosseus membrane, deep fascia and intermuscular septa.

42.2 Insertion

42.2.1            Divides into four tendons after passing under the extensor retinaculum, to insert on to the dorsal surfaces of the bases of the middle and distal phalanges of the 2nd -5th toes.

42.3 Action

42.3.1            Extends the lateral 4 toes. Dorsiflexes and everts foot at the ankle.

42.4 Nerve Supply

42.4.1            Deep peroneal L5, 51.

42.5 Synergists

42.5.1            Extensor digitorum brevis.

42.6 Category

42.6.1             

 

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43      EXTENSOR HALLUCIS BREVIS

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43.1 Origin

43.1.1            The forepart medial aspect of calcaneus; lateral talocal- canealligament, inferior extensor retinaculum.

43.2 Insertion

43.2.1            Dorsal surface of the base of proximal phalanx of hallux.

43.3 Action

43.3.1            Extends proximal phalanx of hallux.

43.4 Nerve Supply

43.4.1            Deep peroneal, 51, 2.

43.5 Synergists

43.5.1            Extensor hallucis longus.

43.6 Category

43.6.1             

43.7 Note

43.7.1            (Note: The extensor hallucis brevis is the medial section of the extensor digitorum brevis.)

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44      EXTENSOR HALLUCIS LONGUS

Back Table of Contents  

44.1 Origin

44.1.1            Middle V2 of the anterior surface of the fibula and the adjacent interosseous membrane.

44.2 Insertion

44.2.1            Dorsal surface of base of distal phalanx of hallux (big toe).

44.3 Action

44.3.1            Extends the distal phalanx of the big toe. Continued action extends proximal phalanx and dorsiflexes and inverts the foot at the ankle.

44.4 Nerve Supply

44.4.1            Deep peroneal, L5, 81

44.5 Synergists

44.5.1            Extensor hallucis brevis.

44.6 Category

44.6.1             

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45      EXTENSOR INDICIS

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45.1 Origin

45.1.1            Dorsal surface of distal half of ulna.

45.2 Insertion

45.2.1            Index finger extensor digitorum tendon.

45.3 Action

45.3.1            Extension of all phalanges of index finger. Assists in wrist extension.

45.4 Nerve Supply

45.4.1            Posterior Interosseous, (deep radial), C7,8.

45.5 Synergists

45.5.1            Extensor digitorum.

45.6 Category

45.6.1             

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46      EXTENSOR POLLICIS BREVIS

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46.1 Origin

46.1.1            The posterior surface of the distal end of the body of the ulna near the middle and the adjacent interosseous membrane.

46.2 Insertion

46.2.1            The posterior surface of the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb.

46.3 Action

46.3.1            Extends the proximal phalanx of the thumb. Continued action extends and assists abduction of the 1 st metacarpal.

46.4 Nerve Supply

46.4.1            Posterior interosseous nerve (deep radial nerve), C6,7.

46.5 Synergists

46.5.1            Abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis longus.

46.6 Category

46.6.1             

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47      EXTENSOR POLLICIS LONGUS

Back Table of Contents  

47.1 Origin

47.1.1            Posterior surface of the middle 1/3 of the ulna and the interosseous membrane.

47.2 Insertion

47.2.1            The posterior surface of the base of the distal phalanx of the thumb.

47.3 Action

47.3.1            Extends the distal phalanx of the thumb. Continued action, extends proximal phalanx and metacarpal, and adducts the 1st metacarpal.

47.4 Nerve Supply

47.4.1            Posterior interosseous nerve (deep radial nerve) C7,8.

47.5 Synergists

47.5.1            Extensor pollicis brevis.

47.6 Category

47.6.1             

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48      EXTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE=ANT DIV

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48.1 Origin

48.1.1            External surfaces and inferior borders of the Sth -12th ribs by tendinous slips that interdigitate with those of serratus anterior and latissimus dorsi.

48.2 Insertion

48.2.1            Linea alba by means of the broad abdominal aponeurosis from ribs to crest of pubis, inquinalligament and the anterior half of the iliac crest along the outer lip.

48.3 Action

48.3.1            Acting unilaterally, rotates the trunk to the opposite side, and flexes it laterally on the side of muscle contraction. If rotation is only activity, the opposite internal oblique is synergist. Acting bilaterally, flexes the trunk anteriorly, supports and compresses the abdominal viscera, giving anterior support to the spinal column. Gives anterior stabilization to pelvis, decreasing lordosis. Assists in forced expiration.

48.4 Nerve Supply

48.4.1            Branches of the 7th .12th intercostal nerves.

48.5 Synergists

48.5.1            Rectus abdominis, internal oblique and external oblique abdominals of opposite side. Psoas on lumbar spine in total trunk flexion.

48.6 Category

48.6.1             

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49      EXTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE=LAT DIV

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49.1 Origin

49.1.1             

49.2 Insertion

49.2.1             

49.3 Action

49.3.1             

49.4 Nerve Supply

49.4.1             

49.5 Synergists

49.5.1             

49.6 Category

49.6.1             

 

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50      EXTERNAL ANAL SPHINCTER

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50.1 Origin

50.1.1             

50.2 Insertion

50.2.1             

50.3 Action

50.3.1             

50.4 Nerve Supply

50.4.1             

50.5 Synergists

50.5.1             

50.6 Category

50.6.1             

 

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51      EXTERNAL INTERCOSTALS

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51.1 Origin

51.1.1            Inferior border of rib above.

51.2 Insertion

51.2.1            Superior border of rib below

51.3 Action

51.3.1            Elevate ribs during inspiration.

51.4 Nerve Supply

51.4.1            Branches from corresponding intercostal nerves.

51.5 Synergists

51.5.1            Serratus posterior superior, levatores costarum. Scaleni group.

51.6 Category

51.6.1             

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52      EXTRINSIC AURICULAR MUSCLES

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52.1 Origin

52.1.1            Auriculari~ anterior: Lateral edge of the epicranial aponeurosis.

52.1.2            Auricularis superior: EQicranial aponeurosis. Auricularis posterior: Mastoid part of the temporal bone.

52.2 Insertion

52.2.1            Auricularis anterior: The spine of the helix.

52.2.2            Auricularis superior: The upper part of the cranial surface of the auricle.

52.2.3            Auricularis posterior: By two or three fasciculi into the ponticulus on the eminentia conchae.

52.3 Action

52.3.1            Minimal action in man.

52.3.2            Auricularis anterior: Draws auricle forwards and up.

52.3.3            Auricularis superior: Elevates the auricle.

52.3.4            Auricularis posterior: Draws the auricle back.

52.4 Nerve Supply

52.4.1            Auricularis anterior and superior: Temporal bral}ches 9f the fa~ial nerve (VII).

52.4.2            AuriCularis posterior: PosterIor aurIcular branch of the facial nerve (VII).

52.5 Arterial supply

52.5.1            Auricular rami from the posterior auricular branch of the external carotid artery, the anterior auricular branches of the superficial temporal artery, and the auricular branch of the occipital artery.

52.6 Synergists

52.6.1            Frontalis and occipitalis, indirectly.

52.7 Antagonist

52.7.1            None

52.8 Category

52.8.1             

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53      FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS

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53.1 Origin

53.1.1            Common flexor tendon from medial epicondyle of humerus.

53.2 Insertion

53.2.1            Anterior surfaces of bases of 2nd and 3rd metacar- pals.

53.3 Action

53.3.1            Flexes and radially deviates the hand at the wrist.

53.4 Nerve Supply

53.4.1            Median nerve, C6, 7.

53.5 Synergists

53.5.1            Flexor carpi ulnaris and palmaris longus for flexion. Extension carpi radialis longus and brevis for radial deviation.

53.6 Category

53.6.1             

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54      FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS

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54.1 Origin

54.1.1            By 2 heads from medial epicondyle of humerus and medial border of olecranon process of ulna.

54.2 Insertion

54.2.1            Palmar surface of pisiform and hamate carpal bones and base of Sth metacarpal.

54.3 Action

54.3.1            Flexes and ulnarly deviates the hand at the wrist.

54.4 Nerve Supply

54.4.1            Ulnar, C7, 8.

54.5 Synergists

54.5.1            Flexor carpi radials and palmaris longus for flexion. Extensor carpi ulnaris for ulnar deviation.

54.6 Category

54.6.1             

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55      FLEXOR DIGITI MINIMI BREVIS (FOOT)

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55.1 Origin

55.1.1            Base of the Sth metatarsal bone.

55.2 Insertion

55.2.1            Lateral side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the little toe.

55.3 Action

55.3.1            Flexes the proximal phalanx of the Sth toe.

55.4 Nerve Supply

55.4.1            Lateral plantar nerve, 82, 3.

55.5 Synergists

55.5.1            Flexor digitorum brevis, flexor digitorum longus, quadratus plantae.

55.6 Category

55.6.1             

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56      FLEXOR DIGITI MINIMI BREVIS (HAND)

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56.1 Origin

56.1.1            Hamulus or hook of the hamate bone and flexor retinaculum.

56.2 Insertion

56.2.1            Ulnar side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the Sth finger.

56.3 Action

56.3.1            Flexes the Sth digit at the metacarpophalangeal articula- tion.

56.4 Nerve Supply

56.4.1            Deep branch of ulnar nerve, C8, T1.

56.5 Synergists

56.5.1            Flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, opponens digiti minimi, interossei.

56.6 Category

56.6.1             

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57      FLEXOR DIGITORUM BREVIS

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57.1 Origin

57.1.1            Medial process of tuberosity of the calcaneus, central part of the plantar aponeurosis, and the intermuscular septa. The entire muscle belly is firmly united with the plantar aponeurosis.

57.2 Insertion

57.2.1            Divides into 4 tendons that insert into the middle phalanges of the 2nd -Sth toes.

57.3 Action

57.3.1            Plantar flexes the middle phalanges on the proximal phalanges, continued action flexes the proximal phalanges on the metatarsals.

57.4 Nerve Supply

57.4.1            Medial plantar, S2, 3.

57.5 Synergists

57.5.1            Flexor digitorum longus.

57.6 Category

57.6.1             

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58      FLEXOR DIGITORUM LONGUS

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58.1 Origin

58.1.1            Posterior surface of middle :}/5 of tibia.

58.2 Insertion

58.2.1            Divides into 4 tendons that insert on the plantar surfaces of bases of distal phalanges of the 2nd -Sth toes.

58.3 Action

58.3.1            Flexes phalanges at all interphalangeal and metatar- sophalangeal articulations of 2nd -Sth toes. Plantar flexes and inverts foot at the ankle.

58.4 Nerve Supply

58.4.1            Tibia, S2, 3.

58.5 Synergists

58.5.1            Tibialis posterior, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum brevis.

58.6 Category

58.6.1             

58.7 View

58.7.1            Posterior and Plantar View

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59      FLEXOR DIGITORUM PROFUNDUS

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59.1 Origin

59.1.1            Upper :}f4 of the anterior and medial surfaces of the ulna, interosseous membrane and deep fascia of the forearm.

59.2 Insertion

59.2.1            4 tendons (1 to each finger) to palmar surface of base of distal phalanx, after passing through tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis.

59.3 Action

59.3.1            A exes the distal phalanges of the four fingers. Assists in flexing metacarpophalangeal, carpometacapal and wrist joints.

59.4 Nerve Supply

59.4.1            Nerve to portion of muscle which correlates with index and middle fingers, anterior interosseous branch of the median, C8, T1 ; nerve to portion of muscle which correlates with ring and little fingers, ulnar, C8, T1.

59.5 Synergists

59.5.1            Aexor digitorum superficialis.

59.6 Category

59.6.1             

59.7 View

59.7.1            Anterior View

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60      FLEXOR DIGITORUM SUPERFICIALIS

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60.1 Origin

60.1.1            HUMERO-ULNAR HEAD: Medial epicondyle of the humerus by the common flexor tendon, ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow and the coronoid process of ulna.

60.1.2            RADIAL: Oblique line of the radius extending from the radial tuberosity to the insertion of the pronator teres.

60.2 Insertion

60.2.1            4 tendons (1 for each finger) divide for the passage of the tendons of flexor digitorum profundus then insert as 2 slips on the sides of the shaft of the middle phalanx.

60.3 Action

60.3.1            Flexes the phalanx of each finger on the proximal phalanx. Continued action, flexes the proximal phalanx at the hand, flexes the hand at the wrist.

60.4 Nerve Supply

60.4.1            Median C7, 8, T1.

60.5 Synergists

60.5.1            Flexor digitorum profundus.

60.6 Category

60.6.1             

60.7 View

60.7.1             - Anterior View

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61      FLEXOR HALLUCIS BREVIS

Back Table of Contents  

61.1 Origin

61.1.1            Medial portion of the plantar surface of the cuboid bone, adjacent portion of the lateral cuneiform bone and prolongation of the tendon of the tibialis posterior.

61.2 Insertion

61.2.1            Medial and lateral sides of base of proximal phalanx of the big toe.

61.3 Action

61.3.1            Flexes metatarsophalangeal articulation of big toe.

61.4 Nerve Supply

61.4.1            Medial plantar, S2, 3.

61.5 Synergists

61.5.1            Flexor hallucis longus.

61.6 Category

61.6.1             

61.7 View

61.7.1             Plantar View (3rd Plantar Layer)

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62      FLEXOR HALLUCIS LONGUS

Back Table of Contents  

62.1 Origin

62.1.1            Distal ql3 of posterior surface of fibula, interosseous membrane and adjacent intermuscular septa and fascia.

62.2 Insertion

62.2.1            Plantar surface of the base of distal phalanx of the hallux (big toe).

62.3 Action

62.3.1            Flexes big toe. Aids in plantar flexion and inversion of the foot at the ankle. Gives medial ankle stabilization.

62.4 Nerve Supply

62.4.1            Tibial 82,3.

62.5 Synergists

62.5.1            Flexor hallucis brevis.

62.6 Category

62.6.1             

62.7 View

62.7.1             Posterior and Plantar View

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63      FLEXOR POLLICIS BREVIS

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63.1 Origin

63.1.1            SUPERFICIAL HEAD: Distal border of the flexor retinaculum and tubercle of the trapezium bone.

63.1.2            DEEP HEAD: Trapezoid and capitate bones.

63.2 Insertion

63.2.1            Radial side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb.

63.3 Action

63.3.1            Flexes proximal phalanx of the thumb. Continued action, flexes the 1st metacarpal and rotates it medially.

63.4 Nerve Supply

63.4.1            SUPERFICIAL HEAD: Median, C6, 7; mostly cs and T1.

63.4.2            DEEP HEAD: Ulnar, C8, T1.

63.5 Synergists

63.5.1            Flexor pollicis longus, adductor pollicis.

63.6 Category

63.6.1             

63.7 View

63.7.1             Anterior View

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64      FLEXOR POLLICIS LONGUS

Back Table of Contents  

64.1 Origin

64.1.1            Anterior surface of middle 1/2 of radius. Adjacent interos- seous membrane and a slip from the coronoid process of the ulna or medial epicondyle of humerus.

64.2 Insertion

64.2.1            Palmar surface of the base of the distal phalanx of the thumb.

64.3 Action

64.3.1            Flexes the interphalangeal joint of the thumb. Continued action, flexes the metacarpophalangeal and carpometacarpal ar- ticulations.

64.4 Nerve Supply

64.4.1            Anterior interosseous branch of the median, C8, T1.

64.5 Synergists

64.5.1            Flexor pollicis brevis, adductor pollicis.

64.6 Category

64.6.1             

64.7 View

64.7.1             Anterior View

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65      FRONTALIS (EPICRANIUS)

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65.1 Origin

65.1.1            No bony origin, but arises from the epicranial aponeurosis (galea aponeurilica), anterior to the coronal suture.

65.2 Insertion

65.2.1            Fib~rs ale coqtinuous with procerus, corrugiltor supercllil and orblculans oculi below and the galea aponeuntlca above.

65.3 Action

65.3.1            Elevates the eyebrows and nasal skin while simultaneously protracting the scalp.

65.4 Nerve Supply

65.4.1            Temporal branches of the facial nerve (VII).

65.5 Arterial supply

65.5.1            SuRraorbital and supratrochlear branches of the Qpl,1thalmic artery. The frontal (anterior) branch of the supertlclal temporal artery.

65.6 Synergists

65.6.1            Occipitalis.

65.7 Antagonists

65.7.1            Procerus, corrugator supercilii, and orbicularis oculi.

65.8 Category

65.8.1             

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66      GASTROCNEMIUS

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66.1 Origin

66.1.1            LATERAL HEAD: Lateral condyle and posterior surface of femur. Capsule of knee joint.

66.1.2            MEDIAL HEAD: Medial condyle and adjacent part of femur. cap- sule of knee joint.

66.2 Insertion

66.2.1            Posterior surface of calcaneus by means of tendo calcaneus (Achilles tendon).

66.3 Action

66.3.1            Plantar flexion and inversion of the foot.

66.3.2            REVERSED ORIGIN-INSERTION ACTION: Flexes leg at the knee. Dorsiflexion of foot increases knee flexion capability.

66.4 Nerve Supply

66.4.1            Tibial, S1, 2.

66.5 Synergists

66.5.1            Soleus, plantaris, tibialis posterior, peroneus lon- gus and brevis, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus.

66.6 Category

66.6.1             

66.7 View

66.7.1            Posterior View

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67      GEMELLUS INFERIOR (1 of 6 Deep Lateral Rotators of Femur)

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67.1 Origin

67.1.1            Superior aspect of the ischial tuberosity.

67.2 Insertion

67.2.1            With the tendon of obturator intern us into the medial surface of the greater trochanter of the femur.

67.3 Action

67.3.1            Laterally rotates the extended thigh at the hip, can also produce horizontal extension. Abducts the flexed thigh.

67.4 Nerve Supply

67.4.1            Sacral plexus, L4, 5, S1.

67.5 Synergists

67.5.1            Piriformis, obturator externus, obturator internus, quadratus femoris, gemellus superior .

67.6 Category

67.6.1             

67.7 View

67.7.1             Posterior View

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68      GEMELLUS SUPERIOR (1 of 6 Deep Lateral Rotators of Femur)

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68.1 Origin

68.1.1            The outer surface of the ischial spine.

68.2 Insertion

68.2.1            With the tendon of obturator internus into the medial surface of the greater trochanter of the femur.

68.3 Action

68.3.1            Laterally rotates the extended thigh at the hip, can also produce horizontal extension. Abducts the flexed thigh.

68.4 Nerve Supply

68.4.1            Sacral plexus, L5, S1, 2.

68.5 Synergists

68.5.1            Piriformis, obturator externus, obturator internus, quadratus femoris, gemellus inferior .

68.6 Category

68.6.1             

68.7 View

68.7.1             Posterior View

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69      GENIOGLOSSUS

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69.1 Origin

69.1.1            The superior mental spines behind the mandibular symphysis, above the origin of geniohyoid.

69.2 Insertion

69.2.1            Inferior fibers: By thin aponeurosis, to the upper anterior surface of the hyoid body near the midline, a few fibers passing between hyoglossus and chondroglossus to blend with the pharyngeal middle constrictor.

69.2.2            Middle fibers: The hyodlossal membrane, which is the continuation of the lingual septum that connects the lingual root to the hyoid bone.

69.2.3            Superior fibers: The whole length of the ventral surface of the tongue, from root to apex, intermingling with the intrinsic lingual muscles.

69.3 Action

69.3.1            Forward traction of the tongue to protrude its apex from the mouth. Acting bilaterally, depresses the medial part of the tongue, making it concave from side to side.

69.4 Nerve Supply

69.4.1            Hypoglossal nerve {XII).

69.5 Arterial Supply

69.5.1            Lingual artery and its branches; dorsal lingual and sublingual rami, tonsillar rami of the facial artery.

69.6 Synergists

69.6.1            Hyoglossus and chondroglossus.

69.7 Antagonists

69.7.1            Styloglossus and palatoglossus.

69.8 Category

69.8.1             

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70      GENIOHYOID (SUPRAHYOID)

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70.1 Origin

70.1.1            Inferior mental spine behind mandibular symphysis.

70.2 Insertion

70.2.1            Anterior aspect of the hyoid bone.

70.3 Action

70.3.1            Elevation and anterior movement of the hyoid bone. When the hyoid is fixed by contraction of infrahyoid muscles, it depresses tlie mandible.

70.4 Nerve Supply

70.4.1            Branches of Cl traveling with the hypoglossal nerve.

70.5 Arterial Supply

70.5.1            Submental branch of the facial artery, the sublingual branch of the lingual artery.

70.6 Synergists

70.6.1            For elevation of hyoid: Digastric, mylohyoid and stylohyoid.

70.6.2            For mandibular depression: Digastric and mylohyoid.

70.7 Antagonists

70.7.1            For elevation of hyoid: Sternohyoid, omohyoid and thyrohyoid.

70.7.2            For mandibular depression: Temporalis, masseter and medial pterygoid.

70.7.3            For hyoid protrusion: Stylohyoid.

70.8 Category

70.8.1             

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71      GLUTEUS MAXIMUS

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71.1 Origin

71.1.1            Posterior gluteal line of ilium, aponeurosis of erector spinae, dorsal surface of sacrum, coccyx and sacrotuberous liga- ment.

71.2 Insertion

71.2.1            Gluteal tuberosity of femur and iliotibial tract of fascia lata.

71.3 Action

71.3.1            Extends thigh at the hip, assists in laterally rotating the thigh. The upper ':?/3 of the muscle are abductors and the lower 1/3 is inactive as an abductor or an adductor in the standing position.

71.3.2            REVERSED ORIGIN-INSERTION ACTION: When the leg is fixed as in standing, the gluteus maximus is an extensor of the pelvis on the thigh. In this case, it is a synergist to the abdominal muscles.

71.4 Nerve Supply

71.4.1            Inferior gluteal, L5, 51, 2.

71.5 Synergists

71.5.1            Hamstrings which are placed at a disadvantage by knee flexion.

71.6 Category

71.6.1             

71.7 View

71.7.1            Posterior View

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72      GLUTEUS MEDIUS

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72.1 Origin

72.1.1            Outer surface of ilium from iliac crest and posterior gluteal line above to the anterior gluteal line below, gluteal aponeurosis.

72.2 Insertion

72.2.1            Lateral surface of greater trochanter.

72.3 Action

72.3.1            Abducts femur at the hip and rotates it medially. Possible lateral rotation. With gluteus minimus is major lateral pelvic stabi- lizer. Aids in early activity of hip flexion.

72.4 Nerve Supply

72.4.1            Superior gluteal, L5, 51.

72.5 Synergists

72.5.1            Gluteus minimus, tensor fasciae latae, upper '2/3 of gluteus maximus.

72.6 Category

72.6.1             

72.7 View

72.7.1             Lateral View

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73      GLUTEUS MINIMUS ANT & POST

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73.1 Origin

73.1.1            Outer surface of ilium between anterior and inferior gluteal lines and margin of greater sciatic notch.

73.2 Insertion

73.2.1            Anterior border of greater trochanter.

73.3 Action

73.3.1            Abducts femur at the hip and rotates it medially. Lateral pelvic stabilizer. Aids in early activity of hip flexion

73.4 Nerve Supply

73.4.1            Superior gluteal, L5, S1.

73.5 Synergists

73.5.1            Gluteus medius, tensor fasciae latae, upper ';/3 of gluteus maximus.

73.6 Category

73.6.1             

73.7 View

73.7.1             Lateral View

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74      GRACILIS

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 Discussion

74.1 Origin

74.1.1            Anterior aspect of lower 1/2 of symphysis pubis and medial margin of inferior ramus of pubis.

74.2 Insertion

74.2.1            Anterior and medial surface of the shaft of the tibia just below the condyle.

74.3 Action

74.3.1            Adducts and medially rotates thigh. Flexes and medially rotates leg.

74.3.2            REVERSED ORIGIN-INSERTION ACTION: When the thigh is fixed, flexes the pelvis at hip.

74.4 Nerve Supply

74.4.1            Obturator, L2, 3.

74.5 Synergists

74.5.1            Adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor mag- nus, pectineus.

74.6 Category

74.6.1             

74.7 View

74.7.1             Anterior View

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75      HYOGLOSSUS

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75.1 Origin

75.1.1            The whole length of the greater cornu and the front of the body of the hyoid bone.

75.2 Insertion

75.2.1            The side of the tongue between the styloglossus laterally and the inferior lingualis muscle medially.

75.3 Action

75.3.1            Depresses the tongue.

75.4 Nerve Supply

75.4.1            Hypoglossal nerve (XII).

75.5 Arterial Supply

75.5.1            Lingual artery and it's dorsal lingual rami.

75.5.2            Tonsillar rami of the facial-artery.

75.6 Synergists

75.6.1            Chondroglossus. Also the genioglossus when it contracts bilaterally.

75.7 Antagonists

75.7.1            Styloglossus and palatoglossus.

75.8 Category

75.8.1             

75.9 View

75.9.1             (Note: Styloid process and mastoid portion of temporal bone are superimposed.)

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76      ILIACUS

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76.1 Origin

76.1.1            Superior ;?/3 of the iliac fossa, internal border (inner lip) of iliac crest, anterior sacroiliac, lumbosacral and iliolumbar liga- ments, ala of sacrum.

76.2 Insertion

76.2.1            Lesser trochanter of femur and for a short distance below along medial border of shaft.

76.3 Action

76.3.1            Flexes thigh at the hip, minimal action in lateral rotation of the thigh.

76.3.2            REVERSED ORIGIN-INSERTION ACTION: When the thigh is fixed, the iliacus muscle flexes the pelvis on the thigh, as in rising to a sitting position from the supine position (sit up).

76.4 Nerve Supply

76.4.1            Femoral, L2, 3.

76.5 Synergists

76.5.1            Psoas major, adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, rectus femoris.

76.6 Category

76.6.1             

76.7 View

76.7.1            Anterior View

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77      ILIOCOSTALIS CERVICIS

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77.1 Origin

77.1.1            Superior borders of the angles of the 3rd -6th ribs.

77.2 Insertion

77.2.1            The posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the 4th, 5th and 6th cervical vertebrae.

77.3 Action

77.3.1            Acting bilaterally, extension of the spine. Acting unilaterally, laterally flexes the vertebral column.

77.4 Nerve Supply

77.4.1            Dorsal rami of the spinal nerves, C6, 7, 8.

77.5 Synergists

77.5.1            Splenius cervicis, semispinalis cervicis, longis- simus cervicis.

77.6 Category

77.6.1             

77.7 View

77.7.1             Posterior View

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78      ILIOCOSTALIS LUMBORUM

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78.1 Origin

78.1.1            Anterior surface of a broad and thick tendon which originates from the sacrum, spinous processes of the lumbar and 11th and 12th thoracic vertebrae, and from the medial lip of the iliac crest.

78.2 Insertion

78.2.1            Inferior borders of the angles of the lower 6 or 7 ribs.

78.3 Action

78.3.1            Acting bilaterally, extension of the spine, Acting unilaterally, laterally flexes the spine.

78.4 Nerve Supply

78.4.1            Dorsal rami of the spinal nerves.

78.5 Synergists

78.5.1            Longissimus thoracis, quadratus lumborum.

78.6 Category

78.6.1             

78.7 View

78.7.1             Posterior View

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79      ILIOCOSTALIS THORACIS

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79.1 Origin

79.1.1            Superior borders of the angles of lower 6 ribs medial to the tendons of insertion of the iliocostalis lumborum.

79.2 Insertion

79.2.1            Into the angles of the upper 6 or 7 ribs and into the transverse process of the 7th cervical vertebra.

79.3 Action

79.3.1            Acting bilaterally, extension of the spine. Acting unilaterally, laterally flexes the spine.

79.4 Nerve Supply

79.4.1            Dorsal rami of the spinal nerves.

79.5 Synergists

79.5.1            Iliocostalis lumborum, longissimus thoracis, spinalis thoracis, semispinalis thoracis.

79.6 Category

79.6.1             

79.7 View

79.7.1             Posterior View

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80      INCISIVUS LABII INFERIORIS

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80.1 Origin

80.1.1            The floor of the mandibles incisive fossa, late;ral to the mentalis muscle and below the emmence of the lateral mclsor tooth.

80.2 Insertion

80.2.1            To the orbicularis oris; suRerficial fibers reach the !lPex.and body of the modiolus while deep fibers reach the base and lrlfenor cornu.

80.3 Action

80.3.1            J;\ssis~s orpicularis o.ris (par~ peripheralis inferior and par margmalis mfenor) m protrudmg the lips.

80.4 Nerve Supply

80.4.1            Inferior buccal branches of the facial nerve (VII).

80.5 Arterial Supply

80.5.1            Inferior labial branch of the facial artery and mental branch from the inferior alveolar artery.

80.6 Synergists

80.6.1            Orbicularis oris, pars peripheralis inferior and pars margmalis mfenor

80.7 Antagonist

80.7.1            Buccinator, .depr~ssor anguli oris, risorius zygomaticus major and zygomaticus mmor.

80.8 Category

80.8.1             

80.9 Note

80.9.1             ( .denotes modiolus)

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81      INCISIVUS LABII SUPERIORIS

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81.1 Origin

81.1.1            Maxilla's incisive fossa superior to the eminence of the lateral incisor tooth.

81.2 Insertion

81.2.1            To the orbicularis oris; superficial fibers partly blend with levator ang1l;li oris and to the intermediate and apical modiolar zones. The deep fibers pass to the superior cornu and oasis moduli.

81.3 Action

81.3.1            Assists orbicularis oris (oars peripheralis superior and par marginalis superior) protrude the lips.

81.4 Nerve Supply

81.4.1            Superior buccal branches of the facial nerve (VII).

81.5 Arterial Supply

81.5.1            Superior labial branch of the facial artery.

81.6 Synergists

81.6.1            9rbicularis oris; pars peripheralis superior and par margmalts superIor.

81.7 Antagonists

81.7.1            Buccinator, zygomaticus major and minor, risorius, and depressor anguli oris.

81.8 Category

81.8.1             

81.9 Note

81.9.1             ( .denotes modiolus)

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82      INFERIOR LONGITUDINAL LINGUALIS

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82.1 Origin

82.1.1            The lin~al root with some fibres being connected to the body of the hyOId bone.

82.2 Insertion

82.2.1            Apex of the tongue.

82.3 Action

82.3.1            Shortens the and turns the apex and sides downward to make the dorsum convex.

82.4 Nerve Supply

82.4.1            Hypoglossal nerve (XII).

82.5 Arterial Supply

82.5.1            Lingual artery and its branches; dorsal lingual and sublingual rami.

82.6 Synergists

82.6.1            For shortening the tongue: Superior lingualis.

82.7 Antagonist

82.7.1            For depressing the apex and sides: Superior lingualis.

82.8 Category

82.8.1             

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83      INFERIOR OBLIQUE

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83.1 Origin

83.1.1            The orbital surface of the maxilla lateral to the nasolacrimal groove.

83.2 Insertion

83.2.1            To the sclera behind the equator into the posterolateral quadrant of the globe between the inferior and lateral recti.

83.3 Action

83.3.1            Depresses the posterior aspect of the eye, hence, rotates the visual axis upwards (elevation) and laterally (abduction). In the anteroposterior axis it extorts the eye.

83.4 Nerve Supply

83.4.1            Branch from the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve (III).

83.5 Arterial Supply

83.5.1            A branch from the infraorbital artery.

83.6 Synergists

83.6.1            Vertical axis: Lateral rectus and superior oblique.

83.6.2            Transverse axis: Superior rectus.

83.6.3            Anteroposterior axis: Inferior rectus.

83.7 Antagonists

83.7.1            Vertical axis: Medial rectus, superior rectus, and inferior rectus.

83.7.2            Transverse axis: Superior oblique and inferior rectus.

83.7.3            Anteroposterior axis: Superior oblique and superior ltL-t .rectus.

83.8 Category

83.8.1             

83.9 Note

83.9.1             (Note: All six extraocular muscles are involved, and act in concert during an eye movement; synergists and antagonists depend on the fIXation poin~ of the eye prior to movement.) O J

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84      INFERIOR PHARYNGEAL CONSTRICTOR

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84.1 Origin/Insertion

84.1.1            Anterior attachment:

84.1.1.1               Cricopha:ryngeal part: Side of the cricoid cartilage back to the inferior cornu of the thyroid cartilage.

84.1.1.2               Thyropharyngeus part: Oblique line of the thyroid lamina and a tendinous band behind this to the inferior thyroid tubercle.. the superior aspect of the cricoid cartilage and tne inferior cornu of the thyroid cartilage.

84.1.2            Posterior attachment:

84.1.2.1               Inferior fibres: Blend with the cricular esophageal fibers.

84.1.2.2               Middle fibres: Posterior median pharyngeal raphe.

84.1.2.3               Superior fibres: Median pharyngeal raphe, overlapping the middle pnaryngeal constrictor.

84.2 Action

84.2.1            General sphincteric and peristaltic action during swalloWIng.

84.3 Nerve Supply

84.3.1            Pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve (X), with filaments fromthe cra.nia1 accessory I;lerve tpat pass through the pharyngeal plexus. CrIcopharyngeus IS also mnervate;d by recurrent laryngeal and externarbranch of the superIor laryngeal nerves.

84.4 Arterial Supply

84.4.1            Branches from the superior thyroid artery and pharyngeal branches from the inferior thyroid artery.

84.5 Synergists

84.5.1            Superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors.

84.6 Antagonist

84.6.1            None

84.7 Category

84.7.1             

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85      INFERIOR RECTUS

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85.1 Origin

85.1.1            inferior margin of optic canal on common annular tendon.

85.2 Insertion

85.2.1            Anteroinferior margin of the eye into the sclera about 6.5 mm. posterior to the margin of the cornea.

85.3 Action

85.3.1            Depresses the anterior of the eye, hence, rotates the eye in the transverse axis downwards. In the vertical axis it aids in m~d!al rotation (adduction) of the eye. In the anteroposterior axlS it extorts the eye.

85.4 Nerve Supply

85.4.1            Branch from the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve (III).

85.5 Arterial Supply

85.5.1            Muscular rami of the ophthalmic artery and a branch from the infraorbital artery.

85.6 Synergists

85.6.1            Vertical axis: Medial rectus and superior rectus.

85.6.2            Transverse axis: Superior oblique.

85.6.3            Anteroposterior axis: Inferior oblique.

85.7 Antagonists

85.7.1            Vertical axis: Inferior oblique, lateral rectus and superior oblique.

85.7.2            Transverse axis: Superior rectus and inferior oblique.

85.7.3            Anteroposterior axis; Superior rectus and superior oblique.

85.8 Category

85.8.1             

85.9 Note

85.9.1            {Note: All six extraocular muscles are involved, and act in concert duri~g a.n eye .movement; syn.ergists and anta~onists depend on the flXatlon pomt of the eye pnor to movement.)

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86      INFRASPINATUS (Rotator Cuff Muscle)

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86.1 Origin

86.1.1            Infraspinous fossa of scapula

86.2 Insertion

86.2.1            Posterior aspect of greater tubercle of humerus, and capsule of shoulder joint.

86.3 Action

86.3.1            Lateral rotation of humerus at the shoulder. Stabilization of the glenohumeral joint.

86.3.2            REVERSED ORIGIN- INSERTION ACTION: With the arm fixed, abducts the inferior angle of the scapula.

86.4 Nerve Supply

86.4.1            Suprascapular, C4, 5, 6.

86.5 Synergists

86.5.1            Teres minor, subscapularis, supraspinatus, del- toid.

86.6 Category

86.6.1             

86.7 View

86.7.1             Posterior View

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87      INTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE (Anterior Division)

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87.1 Origin

87.1.1            Lateral '.?/3 of the inquinalligament and the anterior 1/3 of the middle (or intermediate) line of the iliac crest.

87.2 Insertion

87.2.1            Crest of the pubis and the linea alba by its aponeurosis.

87.3 Action

87.3.1            Acting unilaterally, rotates the trunk to the same side, and laterally flexes the trunk toward the side of muscle contraction. Acting bilaterally, flexes the vertebral column, approximating the anterior thorax and pelvis. Supports and compresses the ab- dominal viscera. Assists in forced expiration.

87.4 Nerve Supply

87.4.1            Ventral rami of T7 -12, and iliohypogastric and ilioinquinal nerves, L 1.

87.5 Synergists

87.5.1            Opposite external oblique, rectus abdominis.

87.6 Category

87.6.1             

87.7 View

87.7.1            Lateral View

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88      INTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE (Lateral Division)

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88.1 Origin

88.1.1            Middle 1/3 of the iliac crest on the middle line and thoraco lumbar fascia.

88.2 Insertion

88.2.1            Inferior borders of the 1Oth, 11th and 12th ribs.

88.3 Action

88.3.1            Acting unilaterally, approximates thorax and pelvis laterally. Contributes to rotation of the trunk on the fixed pelvis toward the side of contraction.

88.3.2            Acting bilaterally, flexes the trunk on the pelvis.

88.4 Nerve Supply

88.4.1            Ventral rami of T7 -12, and iliohypogastric and ilioinquinal nerves, L 1.

88.5 Synergists

88.5.1            : Internal oblique (anterior division, contralateral ex- ternal oblique, rectus abdominis.

88.6 Category

88.6.1             

88.7 View

88.7.1             Lateral View

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89      INTERNAL INTERCOSTALS

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89.1 Origin

89.1.1            Superior border of rib below.

89.2 Insertion

89.2.1            Inferior border of rib above.

89.3 Action

89.3.1            Depress the ribs during expiration.

89.4 Nerve Supply

89.4.1            Branches from corresponding intercostal nerves.

89.5 Synergists

89.5.1            Serratus posterior inferior. Quadratus lumborum.

89.6 Category

89.6.1             

89.7 View

89.7.1             Lateral View

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90      INTERSPINALES

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90.1 Origin and Insertion

90.1.1            Pairs of small muscles joining the spinous processes of adjacent vertebrae, one on each side of the interspinous ligament. Continuous in the cervical region extending from the axis to the 2nd thoracic vertebra and in the lumbar region from the first lumbar vertebra to the sacrum.

90.2 Action

90.2.1            Extension of the spine.

90.3 Nerve Supply

90.3.1            Dorsal rami of the spinal nerves.

90.4 Synergists

90.4.1            Multifidus rotatores, intertransversarii groups.

90.5 Category

90.5.1             

90.6 View

90.6.1            Posterlor an tera lew

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91      INTERTRANSVERSARII

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91.1 Origin and Insertion

91.1.1            Pairs of small muscles, anterior and posterior, on each side of the spine joining the transverse proces- ses of adjacent vertebrae. They extend from the atlas to the first thoracic vertebra and from the 10th thoracic vertebra to the last lumbar vertebra.

91.2 Action

91.2.1            Acting unilaterally, lateral flexion of the spine.

91.3 Nerve Supply

91.3.1            Ventral and dorsal rami of the spinal nerves.

91.4 Synergists

91.4.1            Interspinales, rotatores, multifidus groups.

91.5 Category

91.5.1             

91.6 View

91.6.1            Posterior View

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92      INTRINSIC AURICULAR MUSCLES

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92.1 Origin

92.1.1            Helicis major: Spine of helix.

92.1.2            Helicis minor: Cavum conchae.

92.1.3            Tragicus: Superolateral aspect of the tragus.

92.1.4            Antitragicus: Outer part of the antitragus prominence.

92.1.5            Transverse auriculae: Eminentia conchae on the cranial aspect of the auricle.

92.1.6            Obliquus auriculae: Upper and posterior parts of the eminentia conchae on the cranial aspect of the auricle.

92.2 Insertion

92.2.1            Helicis major: The anterior border of the helix, where the helixis about to cUlVe back.

92.2.2            Helicis minor: The crus of commencement of the helix.

92.2.3            Tragicus: Inferolateral aspect of the tragus.

92.2.4            Antitragicus: The tail of the helix and the antihelix.

92.2.5            Transverse auriculae: Eminentia scaphae on the cranial aspect of the auricle.

92.2.6            G Obliquus auriculae: Eminentia triangularis on the J O .cranial aspect of the auricle.

92.3 Action

92.3.1            Minimal action in man.

92.4 Nerve Supply

92.4.1            Lateral surface muscles; temporal branch of the facial nerve (VII).

92.4.2            Cranial surface muscles; posterior auricular branch of the facial nerve (VII).

92.5 Arterial Supply

92.5.1            Auric.ular rami from the.poster.ior auricular branch of the external carotid artery, the antenor auncular branches of the superficial tempora1 artery, and auricular branch from the occipital artery.

92.6 Synergists

92.6.1             

92.7 Category

92.7.1             

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93      ISCHIOCAVERNOSUS

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93.1 Origin

93.1.1             

93.2 Insertion

93.2.1             

93.3 Action

93.3.1             

93.4 Nerve Supply

93.4.1             

93.5 Synergists

93.5.1             

93.6 Category

93.6.1             

 

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94      LATERAL CRICOARYTENOID

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94.1 Origin

94.1.1            Uppelborder~fthe cricoid arch.

94.2 Insertion

94.2.1            Ape;x of the af..Y.tenoid muscular process, just lateral to the posterIor crIcoarytenoIds attachments.

94.3 Action

94.3.1            Rotates the arytenoid, thus closing the attached vocal folds (adductor of vocal cords).

94.4 Nerve Supply

94.4.1            Recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve (X)

94.5 Arterial Supply

94.5.1            Superior laryngeal branch of the suRerior thyroid artery and the inferior laryngeal branch of the inferior thyroId artery

94.6 Synergists

94.6.1            Transverse arytenoids

94.7 Antagonist

94.7.1            Posterior cricoarytenoid

94.8 Category

94.8.1             

 

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95      LATERAL PTERYGOID

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95.1 Origin

95.1.1            Upper head: Infratemporal crest and lateral surface of tlie greater wing of the sphenoid

95.1.2            Lower head: Lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate

95.2 Insertion

95.2.1            The depression on the anterior aspect of the m,andibular neck (pteryg9id fo,:e~) and to the articular capsule and dISC of the temporomanQlbular JOInt

95.3 Action

95.3.1            Aids in opening the jaw; protrudes the mandible; moves mandible from side to sIde

95.3.2            Acting with thy ipsilateral medial pterygoId It rotates the mandIble on a vertIcal axIS

95.4 Nerve Supply

95.4.1            Branches from the anterior trunk of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V3)

95.5 Arterial Supply

95.5.1            Lateral pterygoid branch of the maxillary artery, a,nd for the upper head, the accessory meningeal branch of the maxIllary artery

95.6 Synergists

95.6.1            For opening the jaw: Digastric, mylohyoid and geniohyoid when infrahyoid muscles contract to fix fiyoid Done, and platysma

95.6.2            For protrusion: Medial pterygoids. For side-to-side: Masseter

95.7 Antagonists

95.7.1            For opening the jaw: The anterior fibers of the temporalis, the masseter and medial pterygoids

95.7.2            For protrusion: The posterior fibers of the temporalis

95.8 Category

95.8.1             

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96      LATERAL RECTUS

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96.1 Origin

96.1.1            Inferolateral margin of the optic canal on the common annular tendon with a small tendinous slip attached to the orbital surface of the greater wing of the sphenoid, lateral to the annulus

96.2 Insertion

96.2.1            Lateral margin of the eye into the sclera about 6.9 mm posterior to the margin of the cornea

96.3 Action

96.3.1            In the vertical axis it laterally rotates (abducts) the eye

96.4 Nerve Supply

96.4.1            Abducent nerve (VI)

96.5 Arterial Supply

96.5.1            Muscular rami from the lacrimal branch of the ophthalmic artery

96.6 Synergists

96.6.1            Superior and inferior oblique

96.7 Antagonists

96.7.1            Medial rectus, inferior rectus and superior rectus

96.8 Category

96.8.1             

96.9 Note

96.9.1             (No.te: All six extraocular muscles,are involved, an~ act in concert dun~g a.n. eye,movement; syn,erglsts and anta~ornsts depend on the flXatlon pomt of the eye pnor to movement.)

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97      LATISSIMUS DORSI

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97.1 Origin

97.1.1            Broad aponeurosis that originates on the spinous proces- ses of lower 6 thoracic and all lumbar vertebrae; posterior crest of ilium, posterior surface of sacrum, lower 3 or 4 ribs, and an attachment to the inferior angle of the scapula

97.2 Insertion

97.2.1            Flat tendon that twists upon itself to insert into the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus, just anterior to and parallel with tendon of pectoralis major

97.3 Action

97.3.1            Extends, retracts and medially rotates the humerus at the shoulder. Through its action on the humerus it depresses, retracts and rotates the scapula downwards. Assists in forced expiration

97.4 Nerve Supply

97.4.1            Thoracodorsal from brachial plexus, C6, 7, 8

97.5 Synergists

97.5.1            Rhomboids, pectoralis major, teres major

97.6 Category

97.6.1             

97.7 View

97.7.1             Posterior View

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98      LEVATOR ANGULI ORIS(CANINUS)

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98.1 Origin

98.1.1            The canine fossa below the infraorbital foramen

98.2 Insertion

98.2.1            The modiolus at the angle of the mouth, min.e;lingwith the zygomaticus major, depressor ang\l;li oris, and of orbicularIs oris. Some superficial fi5ers atfach to the floor of the lower part of the nasolabiarfurrow

98.3 Action

98.3.1            Raises the angle of the mouth. Fixes the modiolus

98.4 Nerve Supply

98.4.1            Superior buccal branches of the facial ne1Ve (VII)

98.5 Arterial Supply

98.5.1            Branches from facial and infra-orbital arteries

98.6 Synergists

98.6.1            For elevation of the modiolus: Zygomaticus major

98.6.2            For elevation of buccal angle: Lateral slip of levator labii superioris alaC?que nasi, levator labii superioris and zygomatIcus mInor

98.7 Antagonists

98.7.1            Depressor anguli oris, platysma and orbicularis OrIs

98.8 Category

98.8.1             

98.9 Note

98.9.1             ( .denotes modiolus)

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99      LEVATOR ANI, ILIAC PART(ILIOCOCCYGEUS)

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99.1 Origin

99.1.1             

99.2 Insertion

99.2.1             

99.3 Action

99.3.1             

99.4 Nerve Supply

99.4.1             

99.5 Synergists

99.5.1             

99.6 Category

99.6.1             

 

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100                     LEVATOR ANI, PUBIC PART(PUBOCOCCYGEUS)

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100.1                   Origin

100.1.1       

100.2                   Insertion

100.2.1       

100.3                   Action

100.3.1       

100.4                   Nerve Supply

100.4.1       

100.5                   Synergists

100.5.1       

100.6                   Category

100.6.1       

 

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101                     LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS

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101.1                   Origin

101.1.1      The inferior orbital mar.e;in on both the maxilla and zygomatic bones above the infraorbital foramen

101.2                   Insertion

101.2.1      The upper lip between the lateral slip of levator labii superioris alaequ.e n.asi and zygomaticus minor. Also, superficial to the levator anguli OrIS

101.3                   Action

101.3.1      Elevates and everts the upper lip

101.4                   Nerve Supply

101.4.1      Superior buccal branches of the facial nerve (VII)

101.5                   Arterial Supply

101.5.1      Branches from infraorbital artery, branches from the facial and transverse facial arteries

101.6                   Synergists

101.6.1      Lateral slip of levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, levator anguli oris and zygomaticus major and minor

101.7                   Antagonists

101.7.1      Depressor anguli oris and orbicularis oris

101.8                   Category

101.8.1       

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102                     LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS ALAEQUE NASI

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102.1                   Origin

102.1.1      Upper part of the frontal process of the maxillary bone

102.2                   Insertion

102.2.1      Medial slip: The greater alar cartilage and skin of nose

102.2.2      Lateral slip: Inserts into the lip blending with the orbicularis oris and levator labii superioris

102.3                   Action

102.3.1      Medial slip: Dilates the nostril; displaces laterally the curvature of the inferolateral convex circumalar furrow

102.3.2      Lateral slip: Raises and everts the upper lip. Raises the curvature of the nasolabial furrows superior part (direct labial tractor)

102.4                   Nerve Supply

102.4.1      Superior buccal branches of the facial nerve (VII)

102.5                   Arterial Supply

102.5.1      Lateral nasal branch from the facial artery, !lIar bra~ches from the superior labial artery and rami from tlie Infraorbital artery

102.6                   Synergists

102.6.1      Medial slip: Dilator nasi

102.6.2      Latera.1 slip: Levator labii sll;pet:ioris, zygomaticus major and mmor and levator anguh OrIs

102.7                   Antagonsts

102.7.1      Depressor anguli oris and orbicularis oris

102.8                   Category

102.8.1       

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103                     LEVATOR PALPEBRAE SUPERIORIS

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103.1                   Origin

103.1.1       

103.2                   Insertion

103.2.1       

103.3                   Action

103.3.1       

103.4                   Nerve Supply

103.4.1       

103.5                   Synergists

103.5.1       

103.6                   Category

103.6.1      Eye Ball & Facial Expression

 

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104                     LEVATOR SCAPULAE

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104.1                   Origin

104.1.1      Transverse processes of first four cervical vertebrae

104.2                   Insertion

104.2.1      Vertebral border of scapula between superior angle and scapular spine

104.3                   Action

104.3.1      Elevates the scapula and rotates the scapula downwards so the glenoid cavity faces inferiorly. Working with the upper trapezius, elevates and retracts the scapula

104.3.2      REVERSED ORIGIN-INSERTION ACTION: When scapula is fixed, laterally flexes and slightly rotates cervical spine to the same side

104.4                   Nerve Supply

104.4.1      Dorsal scapular C5, and ventral rami of C3, 4

104.5                   Synergists

104.5.1      Rhomboids and trapezius

104.6                   Category

104.6.1       

104.7                   View

104.7.1       Posterior View

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105                     LEVATOR VELI PALATINI

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105.1                   Origin

105.1.1      The inferior surface of the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone, the uEPer part of the carotid sheath, and the inferior aspect of the cartIlaginous part of the auditory tube

105.2                   Insertion

105.2.1      Blends in the soft palate and palatine aponeurosis with it's opposite between the two strands of the palatopharyngeus muscle

105.3                   Action

105.3.1      Elevates the soft palate, closing off the passage between the nasopharynx and oropharynx

105.4                   Nerve Supply

105.4.1      Pharyngeal branch of the vagus (X), with the filaments chiefly from the cranial accessory nerve that pass through the pharyngeal plexus

105.5                   Arterial Supply

105.5.1      Greater palatine branch of the maxillary artery, the ascending palatine branch of the facial artery, a variable ramus from tne ascending pharyngeaL artery

105.5.2       

105.6                   Synergists

105.6.1      None

105.7                   Antagonist

105.7.1      None

105.8                   Category

105.8.1       

105.9                   View

105.9.1      (Note: The maxillary artery is cut.)

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106                     LEVATORES COSTARUM BREVES

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106.1                   Origin

106.1.1      Transverse processes of the 7th cervical and upper 11 thoracic vertebrae

106.2                   Insertion

106.2.1      The outer surface of the rib immediately below the vertebra from which it takes origin, between the tubercle and the angle

106.3                   Action

106.3.1      Elevate the ribs during inspiration. Extend the vertebral column, bend it laterally and rotate it slightly toward the opposite side

106.4                   Nerve Supply

106.4.1      From the corresponding thoracic dorsal rami lateral branches

106.5                   Synergists

106.5.1      External intercostals

106.5.2      Serratus posterior superior

106.5.3      Internal intercostals

106.6                   Category

106.6.1       

106.7                   View

106.7.1       Posterior View

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107                     LEVATORES COSTARUM LONGI

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107.1                   Origin

107.1.1      Transverse processes of the 7th -1Oth thoracic vertebrae

107.2                   Insertion

107.2.1      The outer surface of the 2nd rib below its origin, between the tubercle and the angle

107.3                   Action

107.3.1      Elevate the ribs during inspiration. Extend the vertebral column, bend it laterally and rotate it slightly toward the opposite side

107.4                   Nerve Supply

107.4.1      From the corresponding thoracic dorsal rami lateral branches

107.5                   Synergists

107.5.1      External intercostals, internal intercostals, levator costarum brevis

107.6                   Category

107.6.1       

107.7                   View

107.7.1       Posterior View

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108                     LONGISSIMUS CAPITIS

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108.1                   Origin

108.1.1      Transverse processes of the 1st -Sth thoracic vertebrae and the articular processes of the 4th -7th cervical vertebrae

108.2                   Insertion

108.2.1      The posterior margin of the mastoid process

108.3                   Action

108.3.1      Acting bilaterally, extends the head; acting unilaterally, laterally flexes and rotates the head to the same side

108.4                   Nerve Supply

108.4.1      Dorsal rami of the spinal nerves

108.5                   Synergists

108.5.1      Semispinalis capitis, spinalis capitis, longissimus cervicis

108.6                   Category

108.6.1       

108.7                   View

108.7.1       Posterior View

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109                     LONGISSIMUS CERVICIS

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109.1                   Origin

109.1.1      Transverse processes of the 1 st -Sth thoracic vertebrae

109.2                   Insertion

109.2.1      Transverse processes of the 2nd -6th cervical ver- tebrae and sometimes to the atlas transverse process

109.3                   Action

109.3.1      Acting unilaterally, laterally flexes the neck

109.3.2      Acting bilaterally, extension of the neck

109.4                   Nerve Supply

109.4.1      Dorsal rami of the spinal nerves

109.5                   Synergists

109.5.1      Semispinalis capitis

109.5.2      Semispinalis cervicis

109.5.3      Iliocos- talis cervicis

109.5.4      Longissimus cervicis

109.5.5      Longissimus capitis

109.5.6      Spinalis cervicis

109.5.7      Deep posterior spinal group

109.6                   Category

109.6.1       

109.7                   View

109.7.1      Posterior View

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110                     LONGISSIMUS THORACIS

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110.1                   Origin

110.1.1      The common broad thick tendon with the iliocostalis lumborum, fibers from the transverse and accessory processes of the lumbar vertebrae and thoracolumbar fascia

110.2                   Insertion

110.2.1      The tips of transverse process of all thoracic ver- tebrae and the lower 9 or 10 ribs between the tubercles and angles

110.3                   Action

110.3.1      Acting unilaterally, laterally flexes the vertebral column.

110.3.2      Acting bilaterally, extension of vertebral column; draws ribs down

110.4                   Nerve Supply

110.4.1      Dorsal rami of the spinal nerves

110.5                   Synergists

110.5.1      : Iliocostalis lumborum, iliocostalis thoracis, quad- ratus lumborum

110.6                   Category

110.6.1       

110.7                   View

110.7.1       Posterior View

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111                     LONGUS CAPITIS

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111.1                   Origin

111.1.1      Anterior tubercles of transverse processes of the 3rd -6th cervical vertebrae

111.2                   Insertion

111.2.1      Inferior surface of the basilar portion of the occipital bone

111.3                   Action

111.3.1      Acting bilaterally, flexes cervical vertebrae and head.

111.3.2      Acting unilaterally, rotates and laterally flexes cervical vertebrae and head to the same side

111.4                   Nerve Supply

111.4.1      Ventral rami of C1, 2, 3

111.5                   Synergists

111.5.1      : Longus colli, sternocleidomastoid, scalenus group, suprahyoid, infrahyoid and the platysma

111.6                   Category

111.6.1       

111.7                   View

111.7.1      Anterior View

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112                     LONGUS CAPITIS ANTERIOR

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112.1                   Origin

112.1.1       

112.2                   Insertion

112.2.1       

112.3                   Action

112.3.1       

112.4                   Nerve Supply

112.4.1       

112.5                   Synergists

112.5.1       

112.6                   Category

112.6.1       

 

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113                     LONGUS COLLI

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113.1                   Origin

113.1.1      INFERIOR OBLIQUE PART: Ist, 2nd or 3rd thoracic vertebral bodies

113.1.2      SUPERIOR OBLIQUE PART: Anterior tubercles of 3rd, 4th and Sth cervical transverse processes

113.1.3      VERTICAL PART: Anterior aspects of the Sth, 6th and 7th cervical and 1st, 2nd and 3rd thoracic vertebral bodies

113.2                   Insertion

113.2.1      INFERIOR OBLIQUE PART: Anterior tubercles of the Sth, 6th or 7th cervical transverse processes

113.2.2      SUPERIOR OBLIQUE PART: Anterolateral surface of the atlanta anterior tubercle, anterior tubercle

113.2.3      VERTICAL PART: Anterior aspects of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th cervi- cal vertebral bodies

113.3                   Action

113.3.1      Acting bilaterally, flexes cervical vertebrae. Acting unilaterally, assists in rotation to opposite side and lateral flexion

113.4                   Nerve Supply

113.4.1      Ventral rami of C2 -6

113.5                   Synergists

113.5.1      Scalenus group, sternocleidomastoid, longus capitis, suprahyoid, infrahyoid and the platysma

113.6                   Category

113.6.1       

113.7                   View

113.7.1       Anterior View

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114                     LUMBRICALS (FOOT)

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114.1                   Origin

114.1.1      From two adjacent tendons of the flexor digitorum lon- gus, except the first, which arises from the medial side of the first tendon of the flexor digitorum longus

114.2                   Insertion

114.2.1      On the medial side of the proximal phalanx, into the dorsal expansions of the tendons to the extensor digitorum longus of the 2nd .Sth toes

114.3                   Action

114.3.1      Extends interphalangeal joints and assists in flexing metatarsalphalangeal joints of the 2nd .Sth toes

114.4                   Nerve Supply

114.4.1      1st lumbricale: medial plantar, S2, 3. 2nd, 3rd, 4th lumbricales: lateral plantar, 82, 3

114.5                   Synergists

114.5.1      Flexor digitorum brevis and longus for the metatar- sophalangeal articulation, extensor digitorum longus and brevis for the extensor function; dorsal and plantar interossei

114.6                   Category

114.6.1       

114.7                   View

114.7.1       Plantar View (2nd Plantar Layer)

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115                     LUMBRICALS (HAND)

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115.1                   Origin

115.1.1      Tendons of flexor digitorum profundus in center of palm

115.2                   Insertion

115.2.1      Around the radial side of the metacarpal bone and into the extensor expansion

115.3                   Action

115.3.1      Principal extensors of the interphalangeal joints. Weak flexor of the metacarpophalangeal joints

115.4                   Nerve Supply

115.4.1      1 st and 2nd lumbricals from 3rd and 4th palmar digital branches of the median nerve. 3rd and 4th lumbricals from deep branch of the ulnar nerve, C8, T1

115.5                   Synergists

115.5.1      Dorsal interossei, palmar interossei, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor digitorum superficialis

115.6                   Category

115.6.1       

115.7                   View

115.7.1      Anterior View

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116                     MASSETER

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116.1                   Origin

116.1.1      Superficial layer: Zygomatic process of the maxillary bone and the anterior 2/3 of tlle inferior border of the zygomatic arch

116.1.2      Dee-p layer: Posterior li3 of inferior border and medial surface of zygomatic arch

116.2                   Insertion

116.2.1      Superficial layer: Angle of mandible (continuous with medial pte.rygoid) ana lower posterior 1/2 of the lateral surface of ItS ramus

116.2.2      Deep layer: Upper part of the mandibular ramus and lateral surface of coronoid process

116.3                   Action

116.3.1      Closes jaw, forms mandibular sling with the medial pterygoid.

116.3.2      Minimal action in side-to-side, protraction and retraction movements

116.4                   Nerve Supply

116.4.1      Masseteric branch from the anterior trunk of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V3)

116.5                   Arterial Supply

116.5.1      Masseteric branch of maxillary artery and branches froth the facial and transverse facial arteries

116.6                   Synergists

116.6.1      The masseter and medial pterygoid act together forming the mandibular sling. Temporalis muscle

116.7                   Antagonists

116.7.1      Digastric, mylohyoid and geniohyoid when InfrahyoId muscles contract to flX hyoId bone

116.8                   Category

116.8.1       

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117                     MEDIAL PTERYGOID

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117.1                   Origin

117.1.1      Deep attachments

117.1.1.1                      Medial aspect of the lateral pterygoid plate an<;l gI:ooved surface of the pyra~idal process of the palatine bone

117.1.2      Superficial attachment

117.1.2.1                      Lateral surfaces of the pyra.midal proce.ss of the palatine bone and the maxIllary tuDeroslty

117.2                   Insertion

117.2.1      A strong tendinous lamina inferoposterior to the medial surfaces of the mandibular ramus and angle

117.3                   Action

117.3.1      Closes the jaw. Forms mandibular slinK with masseter muscle. Acting with tile ipsilateral lateral pterygoid, it rotates the mandible to the opposite slGe

117.4                   Nerve Supply

117.4.1      Branches from the anterior trunk of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V3)

117.5                   Arterial Supply

117.5.1      Branches from maxillary artery; Medial pterygoid artery and accessory meningeal artery

117.6                   Synergists

117.6.1      For closing the jaw; Masseter and anterior fibers of temporahs

117.7                   Antagonists

117.7.1      For closing the jaw; Mylohyoid, digastric and geniohyoid when infrahyoid muscles contract to fix hyoidDone

117.8                   Category

117.8.1       

117.9                   View

117.9.1       (Note: Zygomatic bone and ramus of mandible have been removed).

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118                     MEDIAL RECTUS

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118.1                   Origin

118.1.1      Superomedial, medial and inferomedial margins of the optic canal on the common annular tendon

118.2                   Insertion

118.2.1      Anteromedial margin of the eye into the sclera about 5.5 mm posterior to the margIn of the cornea

118.3                   Action

118.3.1      In the vertical axis it medially rotates (adducts) the eye

118.4                   Nerve Supply

118.4.1      Branch from the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve (III)

118.5                   Arterial Supply

118.5.1      Muscular rami from the ophthalmic branch of the internal carotid artery

118.6                   Synergists

118.6.1      Superior and inferior rectus

118.7                   Antagonists

118.7.1      Lateral rectus, superior and inferior oblique

118.8                   Category

118.8.1       

118.9                    

118.9.1       (Note: All six extraocular muscles are involved, and act in concert during an eye movement; synergists and antagonists depend on the fIXation point of the eye prior to movement.)

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119                     MENTALIS

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119.1                   Origin

119.1.1      From the incisive fossa of the mandible

119.2                   Insertion

119.2.1      The skin of the chin

119.3                   Action

119.3.1      Raises the mental tissues, mentolabial sulcus and base of the lower lip

119.4                   Nerve Supply

119.4.1      Mandibular marginal branch of the facial nerve (VII)

119.5                   Arterial Supply

119.5.1      Mental branch of inferior alveolar artery and inferior labial and submental branches of the facial artery

119.6                   Synergists

119.6.1      Levator anguli oris and zygomaticus major

119.7                   Antagonists

119.7.1      Depressor labii inferioris and depressor anguli OrIs

119.8                   Category

119.8.1       

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120                     MIDDLE PHARYNGEAL CONSTRICTOR

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120.1                   Origin/Insertion

120.1.1      Anterior attachments

120.1.1.1                      Chondropharyngeal part: The lesser hyoid c.ornu ana the lower part of the stylohyoid ltgament

120.1.1.2                      Ceratopha!'Jngeal part: The whole upI?er border of tlie greafer cornu of the hyoid bone

120.1.2      Posterior attachment

120.1.2.1                      The posterior median pharypgeal raphe.

120.1.2.2                      Superior:ly, fib.ers oyerlaRPing the superIor pharyngeal constrIctor; ferlorly, libers blend with the inferior pharyngeal constrictor

120.2                   Action

120.2.1      General sphincteric and peristaltic action during swalloWIng

120.3                   Nerve Supply

120.3.1      Pharyn~eal branch of the vagus nerve (X), with filaments from the crania1 accessory nerve thaI pass throug1i the pharyngeal plexus

120.4                   Arterial Supply

120.4.1      Ascending pharyngeal artery, ascending Ralatine and tonsillar branches of the facial artery; the dorsal lingual branch of the lingual artery

120.5                   Synergists

120.5.1      Inferior and superior pharyngeal constrictors

120.6                   Antagonist

120.6.1      Stylopharyngeus dilates the pharynx

120.7                   Category

120.7.1       

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121                     MULTIFIDUS

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121.1                   Origin

121.1.1      A series of pairs of small muscles extending the full length of the spine just superlicial to the rotatores and each spanning 2 or 3 intervertebral spaces before inserting

121.1.2      Posterior surface of the sacrum, the dorsal end of the iliac crest, the mamillary and transverse processes of the lumbar and the thoracic vertebrae and the articular processes of the 4th -7th cervical vertebrae

121.2                   Insertion

121.2.1      Spinous processes of all the vertebrae except the atlas

121.3                   Action

121.3.1      Acting unilaterally, lateral flexion and rotation to the opposite side. Acting bilaterally, extension of the spine

121.4                   Nerve Supply

121.4.1      Dorsal rami of the spinal nerves

121.5                   Synergists

121.5.1      Rotatores, interspinales, intertransversarii groups

121.6                   Category

121.6.1       

121.7                   View

121.7.1       Posterior View

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122                     MUSCULUS UVULAE

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122.1                   Origin

122.1.1      Posterior nasal spine of the palatine bone and to the palatine aponeurosis

122.2                   Insertion

122.2.1      Uvular mucosa</