**Glossary-Definitions-Clinical
Practice, Statistics and Research**

**By Ted Nissen M.A. M.T.**

Copyright © May 2021 Ted Nissen

*Abscissa**. *The horizontal or X axis of a graph.

*Absolute
Value**. *The value of a number without
consideration of its algebraic sign.

*Additive**. *Can legitimately be summed.

*Anthropometry
refers to the measurement of the human individual. An early tool of physical
anthropology, it has been used for identification, for the purposes of
understanding human physical variation, in paleoanthropology and in various
attempts to correlate physical with racial and psychological traits. **Wikipedia*

*Alpha
Level The significance level α is the probability of making the wrong
decision when the **null hypothesis** is true. Alpha levels
(sometimes just called “significance levels”) are used in **hypothesis tests**. Usually, these tests are run with
an alpha level of .05 (5%), but other levels commonly used are .01 and .10.*

*Alternative
Hypothesis**. *The hypothesis that the mean of the
population treated in a certain way is not equal to the mean of the population
not treated in that way; symbolized *HI, *.

*Analysis
of Variance (ANOVA)**. *A
statistical method for determining the significance of the differences among a
set of means. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is an analysis tool used
in statistics that splits an observed aggregate variability found inside a data
set into two parts: systematic factors and random factors. The systematic
factors have a statistical influence on the given data set, while the random
factors do not. Analysts use the ANOVA test to determine the influence that
independent variables have on the dependent variable in a regression study.

** Annotated
Bibliography- **An
annotated bibliography or annotated bib is a bibliography (a list of books or
other works) that includes descriptive and evaluative comments about the
sources cited in your paper. These comments are also known as annotations.
A brief summary of the source.
1.) The source's strengths and weaknesses. 2.) Its conclusions. 3.) Why the
source is relevant in your field of study. 4.) Its relationships to other
studies in the field. 5.) An evaluation of the research methodology (if
applicable) 6.) Information about the author's background Annotated Bibliography

*anterior
superior impingement (ASI)**Anterosuperior glenoid impingement is a well known and
well documented cause of shoulder pain, which occurs after deep surface tears
of the subscapularis retract and subsequently become trapped between the
anterosuperior glenoid and humeral head. Pain is typically elicited when the
shoulder is flexed with internal rotation.*

*Asymptotic**. *A line that continually approaches
but never reaches a specified level.

*Bar
Graph**. *A frequency graph for nominal or
qualitative data. Bars are raised from each designation of a nominal
variable on the X axis to the level of its frequency on the *Y *axis.
Space is left between the bars.

*Biased
Sample**. *A sample that does not provide all
members of the population an equal probability of selection.

** Biceps
tendon **The
biceps tendon passes centrally through the cubital fossa and attaches to the
radial tuberosity of the radius. The biceps tendon is relatively easy to
identify by palpation and can be used as a useful landmark for the other
contents of the cubital fossa. Furthermore, partial flexion of the elbow and
voluntary contraction of the biceps muscle exaggerates the tendon’s appearance.
Medial to the biceps tendon is the brachial artery and median nerve.1 Applying
this knowledge to clinical practice allows easier identification of the
brachial pulse which is typically used for blood pressure measurement.

*Bimodal
Distribution**. *A distribution with two modes.

*Binomial
Distribution**. *A distribution of events that have
only two possible outcomes.

*Bivariate
Distribution. *A
joint distribution of two variables, the individual scores of which are paired
in some logical way.

*Cardinal
Plane- The three cardinal planes are the sagittal, frontal,
and transverse planes. The sagittal plane divides
the body into right and left portions. The frontal plane divides
the body into anterior and posterior portions. The transverse
plane divides the body into right and left.*

*A**sagittal plane**(***saj´ĭ-tal**; “arrow”) is a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts. A sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline is the*median plane**, or***midsagittal plane**(*Figure 1.9a**). All other sagittal planes, offset from the midline, are***parasagittal planes**(para = near).*Frontal planes**, like sagittal planes, lie vertically. Frontal planes, however, divide the body into anterior and posterior parts (**Figure 1.9b**). A frontal plane is also called a***coronal plane**(**kŏ-ro´nal**; “crown”).*A**transverse**, or**horizontal**,**plane**runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts (**Figure 1.9c**). Of course, many different transverse planes exist, at every possible level from head to foot. A transverse section is also called a**cross section**.**Oblique sections**are cuts made diagonally between the horizontal and the vertical planes. Because oblique sections are often confusing and difficult to interpret, they are seldom used.*

* *

*Brachial Artery** (See Picture to left brachial Artery
In blue) The brachial artery (r, I), a continuation of the axillary artery (r,
I), provides blood supply to the arm. It commences at the lower margin of the
tendon of the teres major and passes down the arm, ending just below the bend
of the elbow, where it divides into the radial (r, I) and ulnar (r, I)
arteries. Initially, the brachial artery lies medial to the humerus, but as it
runs down the arm it gradually curves in front of the bone and courses into the
**cubital fossa**, a depression anterior to the elbow, creating an easily detectable pulse
point. The profunda brachii (r, I) branches from the brachial artery just below
the teres major and supplies the posterior triceps brachii muscle. Smaller
branches of the brachial artery serve the elbow joint. *

*These
branches and their extensions include: Ulnar collateral (r, I) Ulnar recurrent,
posterior (r, I) Ulnar recurrent, anterior (r, I) *

*Measuring
blood pressure The brachial pulse is key to measuring blood pressure manually
with a sphygmomanometer. The brachial artery is first palpated and then
auscultated to listen for Korotkoff sounds which appear and disappear during
inflation and deflation of the sphygmomanometer allowing systolic and diastolic
blood pressure to be measured.*

*Cell**. *The portion of an ANOV A table
containing the scores of subjects treated alike.

*Central Limit Theorem**. *The theorem in mathematical
statistics that the sampling distribution of the mean approaches a normal curve
as *N *gets larger, and that the standard deviation of this
sampling distribution is equal to *CT/VN. *

*The central limit theorem allows
confidence intervals to be computed around the population mean from a single
sample mean (Mood et al., 1974). In general,
the central limit theorem states that when a number of
different samples are drawn from the same population, the distribution of the
sample means tends to be normally distributed. If you draw a sample from a population
and calculate its mean, how close have you come to knowing the mean of the
population? Statisticians have provided us with formulas that allow us to
determine just how close the mean of our sample is to the mean of the
population.*

*When many
samples are drawn from a population, the means of these samples tend to be
normally distributed; that is, when they are charted along a baseline, they
tend to form the normal curve. The larger the number of samples, the more the
distribution approximates the normal curve. Also, if the average of the means
of the samples is calculated (the mean of the means), this average (or mean) is
very close to the actual mean of the population. Again, the larger the number
of samples, the closer this overall mean is to the population mean.*

*It also
states that the SD of the distribution of the sample means (i.e., the standard
error of the mean used in constructing confidence intervals) can be computed
using this equation:*

*se ¯ ¯ ¯X = s√ n ( 3-17 ) *

*The
larger the sample size, the smaller the standard error (and thus the more
accurate the measure). In general, the approximation to normality of the
sampling distribution of the mean becomes better as the sample size increases.
A sample size of 30 or greater has been found to be sufficient for the central limit theorem to
apply (Vaughan, 1998).*

*Central
Value. *The
mean, median, or mode; a statistic that describes the typical score in a distribution.

*Chi
Square Distribution. *A theoretical sampling distribution of chi square values. There is a
chi square distribution for each number of degrees of freedom.

*Class
Interval. *A
range of scores grouped together in a grouped frequency distribution.

*Concentric
Exercise Muscle contraction **Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating
sites within skeletal muscle fibers. In physiology, muscle contraction does not
necessarily mean muscle shortening because muscle tension can be produced
without changes in muscle length, such as when holding a heavy book or a
dumbbell at the same position. The termination of muscle contraction is
followed by muscle relaxation, which is a return of the muscle fibers to their
low tension-generating state.* *concentric exercise - Bing images*

*Coefficient
of Determination. *A squared correlation coefficient; an estimate of common variance.

*Common
Variance. *Variance
held in common by two variables. It is assumed to be determined or caused by
the same factors.

*Confidence
Interval**. *An interval of scores within which,
with specified confidence, a parameter is expected to lie. Alpha levels can be
controlled by you and are related to confidence levels. To get α subtract
your confidence level from 1. For example, if you want to be 95 percent
confident that your analysis is correct, the alpha level would be 1 – .95 = 5
percent, assuming you had a one tailed test. For two-tailed tests, divide the
alpha level by 2. In this example, the two tailed alpha would be .05/2 = 2.5
percent. See: One-tailed test or two? for the difference between a one-tailed
test and a two-tailed test. .

*Confidence
Limits. *Two
numbers that define the boundaries of a confidence interval.

*Constant. *A mathematical value that remains the
same within a series of operations; for example, regression coefficients *a *and *b *have
the same value for all predictions from the same regression line.

*Control
Group. *A group
in an experiment against which other groups are compared.

*Correlated-Samples
Design. *An
experimental design in which measures from different groups are not independent
of each other. Some writers call this a dependent-samples design.

*Correlation. *A relationship between variables such
that increases or decreases in the value of one variable tend to be accompanied
by increases or decreases in the other.

*Critical
Region. *The
area of the sampling distribution that covers the values of the test
statistic that are not due to chance.

*Critical
Value. *The
value from a sampling distribution against which a computed statistic is
compared to determine whether the null hypothesis may be rejected.

** Cubital
Fossa** The roof
of the cubital fossa is formed by fascia and skin. The roof of the fossa is
covered by the bicipital aponeurosis, which confers some protection to the
median nerve and brachial artery. The contents of the cubital fossa include the
median nerve, radial nerve, brachial artery and biceps tendon – these will be discussed in greater
detail below. A useful
mnemonic for remembering the contents of the cubital fossa ordered lateral to
medial is: ‘Really Need Beer To Be At My Nicest’ Radial Nerve Brachial Tendon Brachial
Artery Median Nerve. https://geekymedics.com/cubital-fossa/

*A useful mnemonic for remembering the
contents of the cubital fossa ordered lateral to medial is: ‘Really Need Beer
To Be At My Nicest’ Radial Nerve Brachial Tendon Brachial Artery Median Nerve.
https://geekymedics.com/cubital-fossa/*

*Superficial
veins of the cubital fossa*

*The
superficial veins of the cubital fossa lie superior to the roof of the fossa
and are separated from the brachial artery and median nerve by the bicipital
aponeurosis.*

* *

*The
superficial veins of the cubital fossa include the basilic vein located
medially, the cephalic vein located laterally and the median cubital vein which
connects these two veins together. Clinical relevance*

*Venepuncture
and intravenous cannulation The superficial veins located superior to the
cubital fossa are often used in procedures such as venepuncture and intravenous
cannulation. The aponeurosis confers an element of protection to the brachial
artery and median nerve in this instance.4Supracondylar fractures*

*A
supracondylar fracture of the humerus is a relatively common fracture in
children. The mechanism of injury is typically a fall onto an outstretched hand
(FOOSH). As the elbow is hyper-extended in this instance, a fracture can occur
between the medial and lateral epicondyles.6 The fracture is usually proximal
to the epicondylar line, however, displaced fragments may cause injury to the
contents of the cubital fossa. Impingement or injury to the brachial artery
results in ischaemia to the forearm and hand which if not reversed or corrected
can cause necrosis, fibrosis and shortening of forearm muscles resulting in Volkmann’s
ischaemic contracture (disabling, irreversible flexion of the hand at the wrist
and wrist pronation). Dialysis fistula construction Anatomical knowledge is
essential for preventing iatrogenic injury during surgery. Patients in renal
failure requiring dialysis undergo a procedure to create an arteriovenous
fistula which is a connection between an artery and a vein. The brachial artery
and cephalic vein are commonly used to create an arteriovenous fistula.1
Haemodialysis allows large volumes of blood to be removed, filtered in the
dialyzer and returned to the body through the fistula. This vein must be large
enough to withstand the higher pressures associated with the arterial
circulation.*

*Cytokines** * *any of a number of substances, such as interferon, interleukin, and
growth factors, which are secreted by certain cells of the immune system and
have an effect on other cells.* *Proinflammatory Cytokine An inflammatory cytokine or
proinflammatory cytokine is a type of signaling molecule (a cytokine) that is secreted
from immune cells like helper T cells (T**ₕ**) and macrophages, and certain other
cell types that promote inflammation. They include interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-12,
and IL-18, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma
(IFNγ), and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and
play an important role in mediating the innate immune response. Inflammatory
cytokines are predominantly produced by and involved in the upregulation of
inflammatory reactions. An inflammatory cytokine or proinflammatory cytokine is
a type of signaling molecule (a cytokine) that is secreted from immune cells
like helper T cells (Th) and macrophages, and certain other cell types that
promote inflammation. They include interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-12, and IL-18, tumor
necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFNγ), and
granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and play an important
role in mediating the innate immune response. Inflammatory cytokines are
predominantly produced by and involved in the upregulation of inflammatory
reactions.*

* *

*Excessive
chronic production of inflammatory cytokines contribute to inflammatory
diseases, that have been linked to different diseases, such as atherosclerosis
and cancer. Dysregulation has also been linked to depression and other
neurological diseases. A balance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory
cytokines is necessary to maintain health. Aging and exercise also play a role
in the amount of inflammation from the release of proinflammatory cytokines.*

* *

*Therapies
to treat inflammatory diseases include monoclonal antibodies that either
neutralize inflammatory cytokines or their receptors.*

*Degrees
of Freedom. *The
number of observations minus the number of necessary relations obtaining among
these observations.

*Dependent
Variable. *The
variable that is measured and analyzed in an experiment. Its values are
tested to determine whether they are dependent upon values of the independent
variable.

*Descriptive
Statistic. *Index
number that summarizes or describes a set of data.

*Deviation
Score. *A raw
score minus the mean of the distribution from which the raw score was drawn.

*Dichotomous
Variable. *A
variable taking two, and only two, values.

*Distribution-Free
Statistics. *Statistical
methods that do not assume any particular population distribution.

*Empirical
Distribution. *An
arrangement from highest to lowest of actual scores from real
observations. .

*Endnote-Note
citing a particular source or making a brief explanatory comment placed at the
end of a research paper and arranged sequentially in relation to where the
reference appears in the paper.*

*Endothelial**-* See illustration to left. Same as epithelium except
for *the tissue which forms a single layer of cells lining various organs and
cavities of the body, especially the blood vessels, heart, and lymphatic
vessels. It is formed from the embryonic mesoderm. Compare with epithelium.*

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

*Endothelial**-* See above Illustration. Same as epithelium except for
*the tissue which forms a single layer of cells lining various organs and
cavities of the body, especially the blood vessels, heart, and lymphatic
vessels. It is formed from the embryonic mesoderm. Compare with epithelium.*

*Epimysium**Skeletal muscle is also known as voluntary muscle because it
is under the voluntary control of the somatic nervous system so all the
movements you think about doing are carried out by skeletal muscles. Most
skeletal muscles are attached to bone as we can see here in our illustration.
As you already know, the bones of the skeleton are connected to one another via
joints, and if a muscle crosses a joint, it performs movements of that joint.
Muscles are attached to bone via tendons which are predominantly composed of
collagen. Tendons are extremely strong allowing them to withstand the stresses
generated by muscular contraction. Now we're going to look at how skeletal
muscle is *

*packaged up inside the body.*
*Epimysium. The epimysium
(ep0ĭ-mis´e-um; “outside the muscle”) is an “overcoat” of dense irregular
connective tissue that surrounds the whole muscle. Sometimes it blends with the
deep fascia that lies between neighboring muscles or the superficial fascia
deep to the skin (p. 151).Perimysium and fascicles. Within each skeletal
muscle, the muscle fibers are grouped into fascicles (fas9ĭ-klz;
“bundles”) that resemble bundles of sticks. Surrounding each fascicle is a
layer of dense irregular connective tissue called perimysium (per0ĭ-mis´e-um;
“around the muscle”).Endomysium. The endomysium (en˝en-mis´e-um; “within
the muscle”) is a wispy sheath of connective tissue that surrounds each
individual muscle fiber. It consists of fine areolar connective tissue.
Starting from the outside and working our way inwards, the first connective
tissue layer we can see is the deep fascia of the skeletal muscle. This is a
layer of dense connective tissue that surrounds individual muscles or groups of
muscles to separate them into fascial compartments. For example, if we look at
this cross-section, we can see that the thigh is divided into the anterior,
posterior, and medial fascial compartments by these layers of deep fascia. The
next layer we see is the epimysium which surrounds the entire muscle belly and
is composed of dense, irregular connective tissue. So here we can see the pink
muscle fibers with their purple nuclei and surrounding them is this irregular
connective tissue highlighted in green which is the epimysium. Deep to the
epimysium, we have the perimysium, also **known as the interfascicular
connective tissue, which divides the muscle belly into fascicles. If we look at
our histological slide, we can see how the perimysium is continuous with and
essentially an extension of the epimysium. The last connective tissue layer
we're going to talk about is the endomysium, which divides the muscle fascicles
into individual muscle fibers. Again, we can see this really nicely under the
microscope. Here we have an individual muscle fiber, and surrounding it, we can
see the endomysium. You can find more about the structure of tendons in our
dedicated study unit.* *The muscle belly is surrounded by the epimysium.* *The muscle belly is then divided into
muscle fascicles by the perimysium. Muscle fascicles are further divided into
individual muscle *

*fibers by
the endomysium. Now that we've seen how skeletal muscle is organized, let's
look at our muscle fibers in a bit more detail. Each skeletal muscle fiber is
one long multinucleated cell known as a myocyte, which is formed by the fusion
of myoblasts. In our previous histological slide, we saw these fibers in
cross-section, but in this image, we can get a better appreciation of how long
muscle fibers are. Here we can see the nuclei of the skeletal muscle fibers highlighted
in green. In this illustration, it might look like each muscle fiber has only
one nucleus; however, if we go back to our previous slide, we can see that they
are actually multinucleated with purple nuclei dotted along their length. Our
next histological slide shows the fibers in cross-section. I'm showing you this
slide again so that we can see how the nuclei of the muscle cells are located
on the periphery of the muscle fiber which is characteristic of this type of
muscle tissue. Muscle fibers are composed of myofibrils which are made up of
contractile units known as sarcomeres. We can see how each muscle fiber is
composed of numerous myofibrils in our histological slide. Within the
myofibril, there are various proteins that interact with each other to generate
contractions. These proteins are organized into thick and thin myofilaments
which give skeletal muscle its striated appearance under the microscope. The
thick filaments are composed of myosin and the thin filaments are composed of
actin. As I mentioned previously, sarcomeres are the contractile units found in
skeletal muscle. Let's look at the components of the sarcomere in more detail. Highlighted
in green, we can see the Z-discs, which divide each myofibril into a series of
sarcomeres. So they mark the beginning and end of each sarcomere. The Z-discs
also act as an anchoring point for the thin filaments. If we look at this
histological slide, we can see these structures quite nicely. Here's a
sarcomere and here's another, and between them, we can see the Z-disc.*
*Next, we're going to look at
the A-band, which is marked or measured by the length of a thick myosin
filament but also contains overlapping thin actin filaments. If we look at
skeletal muscle fibers under the microscope, we can see that they have a
striated appearance that distinguishes them from other muscle types. We
mentioned earlier that this is due to the organization of the myofilaments.
Here we can see the A-bands which stain darker than the alternating lighter
bands. The lighter bands are called the I-bands and are formed by the thin
myofilament actin. I-bands don't contain the entire length of the thin
filaments but are the sections of the thin filament where no thick filament is
present. Therefore, there is no myosin in this region. We can also see these
bands on our histological slide. As we'll see later in our tutorial, the thick
and thin filaments actually interdigitate with one another. However, the
central paler region of the A-band does not contain thin filaments and is
called the H-zone. Within the H-zone is a thin M-line, which is the attachment
point for the thick myosin filaments.*

*Epithelium**- is one of the four basic
types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous
tissue. It is a thin, continuous, protective layer of cells.
Epithelial tissues line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels
throughout the body, as well as the inner surfaces of cavities in many internal
organs. An example is the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. There are
three principal shapes of epithelial cell: squamous, columnar, and cuboidal.
These can be arranged in a single layer of cells as simple epithelium, either
squamous, columnar, or cuboidal, or in layers of two or more cells deep as
stratified (layered), or compound, either squamous, columnar or cuboidal. In
some tissues, a layer of columnar cells may appear to be stratified due to the
placement of the nuclei. This sort of tissue is called pseudostratified. All
glands are made up of epithelial cells. Functions of epithelial cells include
secretion, selective absorption, protection, trans cellular transport, and
sensing. Epithelial layers contain no blood vessels, so they must receive
nourishment via diffusion of substances from the underlying connective tissue,
through the basement membrane. Cell junctions are well employed in epithelial
tissues.*

*Error
Variance. *Variance
due to factors not controlled in the experiment; within-group variance.

*Eccentric
exercise **Eccentric
exercise or resistance training is currently being used as a form of
rehabilitation for sport injuries, but also as an alternative form of exercise
for the elderly, those affected by neurological disorders, COPD,
cardiopulmonary disorders, and cancer. Muscle loss is a big problem faced by
the people afflicted with the above disorders and many cannot participate in
rigorous exercise protocols. Eccentric muscle contractions produce high forces
with low-energy cost. According to Hortobágyi due to these properties eccentric
exercise has the greatest potential for muscle strengthening. To strengthen
muscle the external force must exceed the muscle while it lengthens. The
definition of eccentric contraction is almost the exact definition of muscle
strengthening. Perceived Muscle Damage: There is a stipulation regarding
eccentric contractions in that they actually cause muscle damage and injury.
Eccentric contraction may result in delayed onset muscle soreness however; the
contraction itself does not cause muscle damage or injury.* *eccentric exercise - Bing images*

*Exercise-induced
muscle injury (EMI)- in humans frequently occurs after unaccustomed
exercise, particularly if the exercise involves a large amount of eccentric
(muscle lengthening) contractions. Direct measures of exercise-induced muscle
damage include cellular and subcellular disturbances, particularly Z-line
streaming.*

*Expected
Value. *The mean
value of a random variable over an infinite number of samplings. The
expected value of a statistic is the mean of the sampling distribution of the
statistic.

*Experimental
Group. *A group
that receives a treatment in an experiment and whose dependent variable scores
are compared with those of a control group.

*Extracellular
signal-regulated** kinases In molecular biology, extracellular signal-regulated kinases
(ERKs) or classical MAP kinases are widely expressed protein kinase
intracellular signalling molecules that are involved in functions including the
regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated
cells. Many different stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, virus
infection, ligands for heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors, transforming
agents, and carcinogens, activate the ERK pathway. The term,
"extracellular signal-regulated kinases", is sometimes used as a
synonym for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but has more recently been
adopted for a specific subset of the mammalian MAPK family.[citation needed] In
the MAPK/ERK pathway, Ras activates c-Raf, followed by mitogen-activated
protein kinase kinase (abbreviated as MKK, MEK, or MAP2K) and then MAPK1/2
(below). Ras is typically activated by growth hormones through receptor
tyrosine kinases and GRB2/SOS, but may also receive other signals. ERKs are known
to activate many transcription factors, such as ELK1,[1] and some downstream
protein kinases. Disruption of the ERK pathway is common in cancers, especially
Ras, c-Raf, and receptors such as HER2*

*Extraneous
Variable. *A
variable, other than the independent variable, that may affect the dependent
variable.

*F
Distribution. *A
theoretical sampling distribution of *F *values. There is a
different *F *distribution for each combination of degrees of
freedom.

*flow-mediated
dilation (FMD)* *Flow-mediated
dilation (FMD) refers to dilation (widening) of an artery when blood flow
increases in that artery. The primary cause of FMD is release of nitric oxide
by endothelial cells. To determine FMD, brachial artery dilation following a
transient period of forearm ischemia is measured using ultrasound. **https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flow-mediated_dilation#:~:text=Flow%2Dmediated%20dilation%20(FMD),ischemia%20is%20measured%20using%20ultrasound*

*Focal
adhesion kinase (FAK)** FAK activity elicits **intracellular signal transduction
pathways** that
promote the turn-over of cell contacts with the extracellular matrix, promoting
cell migration. ... FAK is a protein of 125 kD recruited as a participant in
focal adhesion dynamics between cells, and has a role in motility and cell
survival.*

*F
Test. *A method
of determining the significance of the difference among two or more means.

*Factor. *Independent variable.

*Factorial
Design. *An
experimental design using two or more levels of two or more factors and
permitting an analysis of interaction effects between independent variables.

*Footnote-Note
citing a particular source or making a brief explanatory comment placed at the
bottom of a page corresponding to the item cited in the corresponding text
above.*

*Frequency. *The number of times a score occurs in
a distribution.

*Frequency
Polygon. *A
graph with quantitative scores on the X axis and frequencies on the

*functional/microinstability
leading to RC tendinosis/tendinopathy- The overhead throwing athlete is an
extremely challenging patient in sports medicine. The repetitive microtraumatic
stresses and extreme ranges of motion observed within the athlete’s shoulder
joint complex during the throwing motion constantly place the athlete at risk
for injury.* *https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3811734/*

*Y *axis. Each point on the graph
represents a score and the frequency of occurrence of that score. Points are
connected by a line.

*Goodness
of Fit. *Degree
to which observed data coincide with theoretical expectations.

*Grand
Mean. *The mean
of all the scores in an experiment.

*Grouped
Frequency Distribution. *An arrangement of scores from highest to lowest in which
scores are grouped together into equal-sized ranges called class intervals. The
number of scores occurring in each class interval is placed in a column beside
the appropriate Class interval.

*Hawthorne
Effect-The Hawthorne Effect refers to the fact that people will modify their
behavior simply because they are being observed. The effect gets its name from
one of the most famous industrial history experiments that took place at
Western Electric's factory in the Hawthorne suburb of Chicago in the late 1920s
and early 1930s.* *The
Hawthorne Effect occurs when individuals adjust their behaviour as a result of
being watched or observed. For instance, employees may work harder and more
diligently knowing their manager is closely watching, or children behave better
because they are being watched by their parents.*

*Hyperemia
Active hyperemia happens when there’s an increase in the blood supply to an
organ. This is usually in response to a greater demand for blood — for example,
if you’re exercising.*

*Passive
hyperemia is when blood can’t properly exit an organ, so it builds up in the
blood vessels. This type of hyperemia is also known as congestion.*

*HHistogram. *A graph with quantitative scores on
the X axis and frequencies on the

* Y *axis. A bar covering the range
from the lower to upper limit of each score or class interval is raised to the
level of that score's frequency. There is no space between the bars.

*Hypothesis. *A statement about the relationship
between two or more phenomena.

*Hypothesis
Testing. *The
process of hypothesizing a parameter and comparing (or testing) the parameter
with an empirical statistic in order to decide whether the parameter is
reasonable. Hypothesis Testing Tutorial

*Independent. *Events that have nothing to do with
each other. Occurrence or variation of one does not affect the occurrence
or variation of the other. Two sets of uncorrelated scores are

independent of each other.

*Independent-Samples
Design. *An
experimental design using samples whose dependent-variable scores cannot
logically be paired.

*Independent
Variable. *The
treatment variable; it is selected by the experimenter.

*Inferential
Statistics. *A
method of deciding between two or more alternative conclusions.

*Interaction. *A relationship between two factors
such that the effect of one treatment on the dependent variable depends upon
the level of the other treatment.

*Intracellular signal transduction pathways**In most cases, a chain of reactions transmits signals
from the cell surface to a variety of intracellular targets—a process called
intracellular signal transduction. ... Intracellular signaling pathways thus
connect the cell surface to the nucleus, leading to changes in gene expression
in response to extracellular stimuli.*

*Interpolation. *A method for determining a value
known to lie between two other values.

*interquartile
range (IQR)-* *The
IQR describes the middle 50% of values when ordered from lowest to highest. To
find the interquartile range (IQR), first find the median (middle value)
of the lower and upper half of the data. These values are quartile 1 (Q1) and
quartile 3 (Q3). **Interquartile range*

*Interval
Scale. *A
measurement scale in which equal differences between numbers stand for equal
differences in the thing measured. The zero point is arbitrarily defined.

*Least-Squares
Solution. *Method
of fitting a regression line such that the sums of the squared deviations from
the straight regression line will be a minimum.

*Level. *A treatment chosen from an
independent variable.

*Level of
Confidence. *The
confidence (1 - *a) *that a parameter lies within a given
interval.

*Level of
Significance. *The
probability level at which the null hypothesis is rejected.

*Line
Graph. *A graph
presenting the relationship between two variables.

*Linearity. *The condition wherein the "line
of best fit" through a scatterplot is a straight line. *Lower
Limit. *The bottom of the range of possible values that a score on a
quantitative variable

can take; for example, a score of 5 has 4.5 as its lower limit.

*Main
Effect. *The
deviation of one or more treatment means from the grand mean.

*Mann-Whitney
U Test. *A
nonparametric method used to determine whether two sets of ranked data based on
two independent samples came from the same population.

*Matched
Pairs. *A
correlated-samples design in which pairs of scores are matched.

*Mean. *The arithmetic average; the sum of
the scores divided by the number of scores.

*Mean
Square. *An ANOV
A term for the variance; a sum of squares divided by its degrees of freedom.

*Mechanotransduction** refers to the processes through
which cells sense and respond to mechanical stimuli by converting them to
biochemical signals that elicit specific cellular responses.*

*Median. *The point that divides a distribution
of scores into two equal halves, so that half the scores are above the median
and half are below it.

** Median
nerve **The median
nerve lies most medially within the cubital fossa, immediately medial to the
brachial artery. The median nerve exits the cubital fossa between the two heads
of the ulnar and humeral heads of pronator teres.3 After leaving the cubital
fossa, the median nerve runs down the forearm to sit deep or just lateral to
the palmaris longus at the wrist. The median nerve has an important role in
wrist flexion, forearm pronation and movements of the digits by innervating
most of the muscles of the anterior compartment of the forearm.

*As a
side note; the ulnar nerve does not pass through the cubital fossa. The ulnar
nerve passes down the medial side of the forearm through the cubital tunnel and
passes posteriorly to the medial epicondyle to enter the anterior forearm.*

*Meta-Analysis
-**What Is a Meta-Analysis?** **There are several ways that
individual studies can be summarized to help healthcare workers make decisions,
including narrative reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Both
narrative and systematic reviews are both qualitative in nature. Narrative
reviews are not very rigorous, but they focus on the very basics of a
topic. Systematic reviews are more rigorous than narrative reviews;
they focus on a single research question. For example, a systematic review will
focus specifically on the relationship between cervical cancer and long-term
use of oral contraceptives, while a narrative review may be about cervical
cancer. Meta-analyses are quantitative and more rigorous than both
types of reviews. In addition to providing an overview, these papers provide a
quantitative assessment of how well a treatment works or they may also provide
an estimate of how much more likely a person is to develop a disease if they
participate in a certain behavior.*

*Mitochondrial
biogenesis signaling** potentiated mitochondrial biogenesis signaling* *The dynamics of mitochondrial
biogenesis and function is a complex interplay of cellular and molecular
processes that ultimately shape bioenergetics capacity. Mitochondrial mass, by
itself, represents the net balance between rates of biogenesis and degradation.
Mitochondrial biogenesis is dependent on different signaling cascades and
transcriptional complexes that promote the formation and assembly of
mitochondria—a process that is heavily dependent on timely and coordinated
transcriptional control of genes encoding for mitochondrial proteins. In this
article, we discuss the major signals and transcriptional complexes,
programming mitochondrial biogenesis, and bioenergetic activity. This
regulatory network represents a new therapeutic window into the treatment of
the wide spectrum of mitochondrial and neurodegenerative diseases characterized
by dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetic deficiencies. **Mitochondrial Biogenesis through
Activation of Nuclear Signaling Proteins*

*Mode. *The score that occurs most frequently
in a distribution.

*Multiple
Comparisons. *Tests
of differences between treatment means or combinations of means following an
ANOV A.

*Multiple Correlation. *A correlation method that combines
intercorrelations among more than two variables into a single statistic.

*Natural
Pairs. *A
correlated-samples design, in which pairing occurs prior to the experiment.

*nuclear
factor kappaB**
Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is an ancient protein transcription factor
(Salminen et al., 2008) and considered a regulator of innate immunity
(Baltimore, 2009). The NF-κB signaling pathway links pathogenic signals
and cellular danger signals thus organizing cellular resistance to invading pathogens.*

*Nuclear
accumulation**A
common mechanism by which the tumor suppressor p53 accumulates in the nucleus
following cellular stress is through the attenuation of its interaction with
MDM2, a protein involved in the nuclear export and degradation of p53. This is
accomplished by induced modifications of p53, MDM2 or both.*

*Nitroglycerin-induced
dilation Nitroglycerine- induced vasodilation, an index of
endothelium-independent vasodilation, assessed by sublingual administration of
nitroglycerine, has been used as a control test for FMD measurement to
differentiate endothelium-dependent from endothelium-independent vasodilation
because both endog- enous Nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation has been used as
a control test for flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) to differentiate
endothelium-dependent from endothelium-independent response when evaluating
endothelial function in humans. Recently, nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation
has also been reported to be impaired in patients with atherosclerosis.*

*Nominal
Scale. *A scale
of measurement in which numbers are used simply as names and have no real
quantitative value.

*Nonparametric
Methods. *Statistical
methods that do not require the estimation of parameters.

*Normal
Distribution. *A
theoretical distribution based on frequency of occurrence of chance events.

*Normality. *The condition of being distributed in
the form of the normal curve.

*Null
Hypothesis. *The
assumption that the difference between an observed statistic and a proposed
parameter is the result of chance.

*Observed
Frequency. *Number
of observations actually occurring in a category.

*One-Tailed
Test. *A
statistical test in which the critical region lies in one tail of the
distribution. https://www.statisticshowto.com/probability-and-statistics/hypothesis-testing/one-tailed-test-or-two/

*Operational
Definition. *A
definition that specifies a concrete meaning for a variable. The variable
is defined in terms of the operations of the experiment; for example, *hunger *may
be defined as "24 hours of food deprivation."

*Ordinal
Scale. *A
rank-ordered scale of measurement in which equal differences between numbers
do not represent equal differences between the things measured.

*Ordinate. *The vertical or *Y *axis
of a graph.

*Orthogonal. *Independent; uncorrelated.

*Parameter. *Some numerical characteristic of a
population. In statistics, as opposed to its general use in mathematics, a **parameter** is any measured quantity of
a statistical
population that
summarises or describes an aspect of the population, such as a mean or a standard
deviation. If a
population exactly follows a known and defined distribution, for example
the normal
distribution, then a
small set of parameters can be measured which completely describes the
population, and can be considered to define a probability distribution for the purposes of extracting samples from this population.

A parameter
is to a population as a statistic is to a sample; that is to say, a parameter
describes the true value calculated from the full population, whereas a
statistic is an estimated measurement of the parameter based on a subsample.
Thus a "statistical parameter" can be more specifically referred to
as a **population parameter**.^{[1]}^{[2]}

*Parameter
Estimation. *Estimating
one particular point to be the parameter of a population.

*Partial
Correlation. *Technique
that allows the separation or partialing out of the effects of one variable
from the correlation of two other variables.

*Population. *All members of a specified group.

*posterior
superior impingement(PSI) Posterosuperior impingement, also known as internal
impingement, is a relatively uncommon form of shoulder impingement primarily
involving the infraspinatus tendon and the posterosuperior glenoid labrum. It
occurs when the shoulder is abducted and externally rotated (ABER position).
Clinical presentation patients present with posterior shoulder pain and
instability. It almost exclusively occurs in athletes who repetitively place
their shoulder into extreme abduction and external rotation such as throwers,
swimmers, volleyball players and tennis players. Pathology The extreme
abduction and external rotation results in repeated impingement of the
infraspinatus tendon and the posterior portion of the supraspinatus tendon
between the head of the humerus and the posterior superior rim of the glenoid.
There is resulting tendon degeneration, reactive humeral head cysts, and glenoid
labrum degeneration. **https://radiopaedia.org/articles/posterosuperior-impingement-of-the-shoulder?lang=us*

*power
analysis**-The
a priori power analysis is what is usually done when designing a study. This
tells you what sample size is needed to detect some level of effect with
inferential statistics (i.e. with p- values). ... It is important to note that
study design impacts power calculations and the interpretation of effect sizes.*

*Proportion. *A part of a whole.

P-Value= probability that the significant differences between groups is due to chance alone. The p value is the evidence against a null hypothesis. The smaller the p-value, the stronger the evidence that you should reject the null hypothesis. P values are expressed as decimals although it may be easier to understand what they are if you convert them to a percentage. For example, a p value of 0.0254 is 2.54%. https://www.statisticshowto.com/probability-and-statistics/statistics-definitions/p-value/#:~:text=The%20p%20value%20is%20the,value%20of%200.0254%20is%202.54%25

The p-value (e.g., probability value) of any statistical test represents the probability that the results were obtained by chance alone. It represents the precise chance of getting that result, and it is derived from the value of the computed test statistic. The actual p-value of a statistical test is computed from the data and is not known until the test is completed.

The specific level of the p-value that is defined as “statistically significant” is called the alpha-level (α-level). This value is defined by the researcher before any statistical tests are conducted. Common α-levels used are .10, .05, and .01. An α-level of .10 means that for a result to be significant, it cannot occur more than 10% of the time by chance. Similarly, an α-level of .05 means that the result cannot occur more than 5% of the time by chance, and an α-level of .01 means that it cannot occur more than 1% of the time by chance.

*Qualitative
Variable. *A
variable that exists in different kinds; measured on a nominal scale.

*Quantitative
Variable. *A
variable that exists in different
amounts. .

*Quartile
Range The IQR (inter quartile range) describes the middle 50% of values when
ordered from lowest to highest. To find the interquartile range (IQR),
first find the median (middle value) of the lower and upper half of the
data. These values are quartile 1 (Q1) and quartile 3 (Q3). The IQR is the
difference between Q3 and Q1.*

*Randomized,
blinded trial-* *Blinded
RCTs are commonly used to test the efficacy of medical interventions and may
additionally provide information about adverse effects, such as drug reactions.
A randomized controlled trial can provide compelling evidence that the study
treatment causes an effect on human health.*

*Radial
nerve** The
radial nerve is located adjacent to the cubital fossa, anterior to the elbow
and deep to the brachioradialis muscle. Strictly speaking, it is not considered
to be contained within the cubital fossa but it does pass closely through the
area under brachialis. The radial nerve typically bifurcates close to the
cubital fossa into a superficial and deep branch. The deep branch is solely
responsible for motor function and supplies the muscles of the posterior
compartment of the forearm. It passes between the supinator muscle heads and
its name changes to become the posterior interosseous nerve which passes close
to the radial neck and is responsible for motor function only.3 The superficial
branch continues deep to the brachioradialis muscle into the forearm and is
responsible for sensation only.*

*R andomized
controlled trial (or randomized control trial;*

*Random
Sample. *A
subset of a population chosen in such a way that all samples of the specified
size have an equal probability of being selected.

*Range. *The difference between the highest
and lowest scores plus I.

*Ratio
Scale. *A scale
that has all the characteristics of an interval scale, plus a true zero point.

*Raw
Score. *A score
as it is obtained in an experiment.

*Rectangular
Distribution. *A
distribution in which all scores have the same frequency.

*Regression
Coefficients. *The
values *a *(point where the regression line intersects
the Yaxis) and *b *(slope of the regression line).

*Regression
Equation. *An
equation used to predict particular values of *Y *for specific
values of X. *Regression Line. *The "line of best fit"
that runs through a scatterplot.

*Repeated
Measures. *An
experimental design in which more than one dependent-variable measure is taken
on each subject.

*Sample. *A subset of a population.

*Sampling
Distribution. *A
theoretical distribution of a statistic based on all possible random samples
drawn from the same population; used to determine probabilities.

*Sampling
Error. *The
tendency of sample statistics from the same population to vary from
one sample to another.

** Sarcomere**
The region of a myofibril
between two successive Z discs is a sarcomere (sar´ko-mĕr; “muscle
segment”). Averaging 2 μm long, a sarcomere is the smallest contractile
unit of a muscle fiber—the functional unit of skeletal muscle. It contains an A
band flanked by half an I band at each end. Within each myofibril, the
sarcomeres align end to end like boxcars in a train.

*Scatter
plot. *The plot
of points that results when a distribution of paired X and *Y *values
are plotted on a graph. '

*Scheffe Test. *A method of making all possible
comparisons after ANOV A.

*Simple
Effect. *The
difference between cell means in a factorial ANOV A.

*Simple
Frequency Distribution. *Scores arranged from highest to lowest, with the frequency of
each score placed in a column beside the score.

*Skewed
Distribution. *An
asymmetrical distribution. The skew may be positive (more low scores than
high, so that the frequency polygon is pointed toward the right) or negative
(more high scores than low, so that the frequency polygon is pointed toward the
left).

*Spearman's
Rho. *A
con-elation statistic for two sets of ranked data.

*Standard
Deviation. *The
square root of the mean of the squared deviations.

*Standard
Error. *The
standard deviation of a sampling distribution. The standard error (SE) of a** statistic
(usually an estimate of a parameter)** is** the standard deviation
of its sampling distribution or an estimate of** that** standard
deviation.** If the statistic is the sample mean, it is called the
standard error of the mean (SEM). The sampling distribution of a mean is
generated by repeated sampling from the same population and recording of the
sample means obtained. This forms a distribution of different means, and this
distribution has its own mean and variance. Mathematically, the variance of the
sampling distribution obtained is equal to the variance of the population
divided by the sample size. This is because as the sample size increases,
sample means cluster more closely around the population mean. Therefore, the
relationship between the standard error of the mean and the standard deviation
is such that, for a given sample size, the standard error of the mean equals
the standard deviation divided by the square root of the sample size. In other
words, the standard error of the mean is a measure of the dispersion of sample
means around the population mean. In regression analysis, the term
"standard error" refers either to the square root of the reduced
chi-squared statistic, or the standard error for a particular regression
coefficient (as used in, say, confidence intervals). Standard error - Wikipedia Standard deviation diagram.svg -
Wikimedia Commons

*Standard
Error of Estimate. *The standard deviation of the differences between predicted out comes
and actual outcomes.

*Standard
Error of the Difference The standard deviation of a sampling distribution of
differ*ences between
means.

*Standard
Score. *A score
expressed in standard-deviation units.

*Statistic. *Some numerical characteristic of a
sample.

*Stratified
Sample. *A sample
drawn in such a: way that it reflects exactly a known characteristic of the
population.

*Subacromial
impingement syndrome(SAIS-refers to the inflammation and irritation of the
rotator cuff tendons as they pass through the subacromial space, resulting in pain,
weakness, and reduced range of motion within the shoulder.*

*SAIS
encompasses a range of pathology including rotator cuff
tendinosis, subacromial bursitis, and calcific tendinitis. All these conditions
result in an attrition between the coracoacromial arch and the supraspinatus
tendon or subacromial bursa.*

*It occurs
most commonly in patients under 25 years, typically in active
individuals or in manual professions, and accounts for around 60% of all
shoulder pain presentations, making it the most common pathology of the
shoulder.*

*Subsample. *A subset of a sample.

*Sum of
Squares. *The
sum of the squared deviations from the mean; the numerator of the formula for
the standard deviation.

*t Distribution. *Theoretical distribution used to
determine significance of experimental results based on small
samples. .

*t Test. *Significance test that uses the *t *distribution.

*Theoretical
Distribution. *Arrangement
of hypothesized scores based on mathematical formulas and logic.

*Theoretical
Frequency. *Number
of observations expected in a category if the null hypothesis I is
true; expected frequency.

*Treatment. *A level of an independent variable.

*Two-
Tailed Test of Significance. *Any statistical test in which the critical region is divided
into the two tails of the distribution. A two tailed test tells you that you’re
finding the area in the middle of a distribution. In other words, your rejection region (the place where you
would reject the null
hypothesis) is
in **both tails. **For example, let’s say you were running a z test with an alpha level of 5% (0.05). In a one tailed
test, the entire 5% would be in a single tail. But with a two tailed test, that
5% is split between the two tails, giving you 2.5% (0.025) in each tail. https://www.statisticshowto.com/two-tailed-test/

*Type I Error. *Rejection of the null hypothesis when
it is true.

*Type II
Error. *Retention
of the null hypothesis when it is false.

*Upper
Limit. *The top
of the range of values a score from a quantitative variable can take; for
example, the number 5 has 5.5 as its upper limit.

*U
Value. *Statistic
used in the Mann-Whitney *U *test.

*Variability. *Differences among scores in a
distribution.

*Variable. *Something that exists in more than
one amount or in more than one form.

*Variance. *The square of the standard deviation.

*Wilcoxon
and Wilcox Multiple Comparisons. *A nonparametric method for independent samples in which all
possible pairs of treatments are compared.

*Wilcoxon
Rank-Sum Test. *A
nonparametric test for testing the difference between two independent samples.

*Wilcoxon
Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks Test. *between two correlated samples.

*Yates'
Correction. *A
correction for a 2 x 2 chi square when expected frequencies are few.

*z Score. *A score expressed in
standard-deviation units; used to compare the relative standing of scores in
two different distributions.

Z line streaming- is observed in muscle damage, as you said, but it's a specific type of muscle damage, damage which originates from the Z-line. The word streaming is used to describe the way by which the Z-lines drift away, slowly degenerating the structure.

Z-line streaming Muscle Damage- High force eccentric muscle contractions can result in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), prolonged loss of muscle strength, decreased range of motion, muscle swelling and an increase of muscle proteins in the blood. At the ultrastructural level Z-line streaming and myofibrillar disruptions have been taken as evidence for muscle damage.