**Glossary-Definitions-Clinical
Practice, Statistics and Research**

**By Ted Nissen M.A. M.T.**

Copyright © May 2021 Ted Nissen

*Abscissa**. *The horizontal or X axis of a graph.

*Absolute
Value**. *The value of a number without
consideration of its algebraic sign.

*Additive**. *Can legitimately be summed.

*Anthropometry
refers to the measurement of the human individual. An early tool of physical
anthropology, it has been used for identification, for the purposes of
understanding human physical variation, in paleoanthropology and in various
attempts to correlate physical with racial and psychological traits. **Wikipedia*

*Alpha
Level The significance level α is the probability of making the wrong
decision when the **null hypothesis** is true. Alpha levels
(sometimes just called “significance levels”) are used in **hypothesis tests**. Usually, these tests are run with
an alpha level of .05 (5%), but other levels commonly used are .01 and .10.*

*Alternative
Hypothesis**. *The hypothesis that the mean of the
population treated in a certain way is not equal to the mean of the population
not treated in that way; symbolized *HI, *.

*Analysis
of Variance (ANOVA)**. *A
statistical method for determining the significance of the differences among a
set of means. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is an analysis tool used
in statistics that splits an observed aggregate variability found inside a data
set into two parts: systematic factors and random factors. The systematic
factors have a statistical influence on the given data set, while the random
factors do not. Analysts use the ANOVA test to determine the influence that
independent variables have on the dependent variable in a regression study.

** Annotated
Bibliography- **An
annotated bibliography or annotated bib is a bibliography (a list of books or
other works) that includes descriptive and evaluative comments about the
sources cited in your paper. These comments are also known as annotations.
A brief summary of the source.
1.) The source's strengths and weaknesses. 2.) Its conclusions. 3.) Why the
source is relevant in your field of study. 4.) Its relationships to other
studies in the field. 5.) An evaluation of the research methodology (if
applicable) 6.) Information about the author's background Annotated Bibliography

*anterior
superior impingement (ASI)**Anterosuperior glenoid impingement is a well known and
well documented cause of shoulder pain, which occurs after deep surface tears
of the subscapularis retract and subsequently become trapped between the
anterosuperior glenoid and humeral head. Pain is typically elicited when the
shoulder is flexed with internal rotation.*

*Asymptotic**. *A line that continually approaches
but never reaches a specified level.

*Bar
Graph**. *A frequency graph for nominal or
qualitative data. Bars are raised from each designation of a nominal
variable on the X axis to the level of its frequency on the *Y *axis.
Space is left between the bars.

*Biased
Sample**. *A sample that does not provide all
members of the population an equal probability of selection.

*Bimodal
Distribution**. *A distribution with two modes.

*Binomial
Distribution**. *A distribution of events that have
only two possible outcomes.

*Bivariate
Distribution. *A
joint distribution of two variables, the individual scores of which are paired
in some logical way.

*Cell. *The portion of an ANOV A table
containing the scores of subjects treated alike.

*Central
Limit Theorem. *The
theorem in mathematical statistics that the sampling distribution of the mean
approaches a normal curve as *N *gets larger, and that the
standard deviation of this sampling distribution is equal to *CT/VN.*

*Central
Value. *The
mean, median, or mode; a statistic that describes the typical score in a distribution.

*Chi
Square Distribution. *A theoretical sampling distribution of chi square values. There is a
chi square distribution for each number of degrees of freedom.

*Class
Interval. *A
range of scores grouped together in a grouped frequency distribution.

*Concentric
Exercise Muscle contraction **Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating
sites within skeletal muscle fibers. In physiology, muscle contraction does not
necessarily mean muscle shortening because muscle tension can be produced
without changes in muscle length, such as when holding a heavy book or a
dumbbell at the same position. The termination of muscle contraction is
followed by muscle relaxation, which is a return of the muscle fibers to their
low tension-generating state.* *concentric exercise - Bing images*

*Coefficient
of Determination. *A squared correlation coefficient; an estimate of common variance.

*Common
Variance. *Variance
held in common by two variables. It is assumed to be determined or caused by
the same factors.

*Confidence
Interval. *An
interval of scores within which, with specified confidence, a parameter is
expected to lie. Alpha levels can be controlled by you and are related to
confidence levels. To get α subtract your confidence level from 1. For
example, if you want to be 95 percent confident that your analysis is correct,
the alpha level would be 1 – .95 = 5 percent, assuming you had a one tailed
test. For two-tailed tests, divide the alpha level by 2. In this example, the
two tailed alpha would be .05/2 = 2.5 percent. See: One-tailed test or two? for
the difference between a one-tailed test and a two-tailed test. .

*Confidence
Limits. *Two
numbers that define the boundaries of a confidence interval.

*Constant. *A mathematical value that remains the
same within a series of operations; for example, regression coefficients *a *and *b *have
the same value for all predictions from the same regression line.

*Control
Group. *A group
in an experiment against which other groups are compared.

*Correlated-Samples
Design. *An
experimental design in which measures from different groups are not independent
of each other. Some writers call this a dependent-samples design.

*Correlation. *A relationship between variables such
that increases or decreases in the value of one variable tend to be accompanied
by increases or decreases in the other.

*Critical
Region. *The
area of the sampling distribution that covers the values of the test
statistic that are not due to chance.

*Critical
Value. *The
value from a sampling distribution against which a computed statistic is
compared to determine whether the null hypothesis may be rejected.

*Degrees
of Freedom. *The
number of observations minus the number of necessary relations obtaining among
these observations.

*Dependent
Variable. *The
variable that is measured and analyzed in an experiment. Its values are
tested to determine whether they are dependent upon values of the independent
variable.

*Descriptive
Statistic. *Index
number that summarizes or describes a set of data.

*Deviation
Score. *A raw
score minus the mean of the distribution from which the raw score was drawn.

*Dichotomous
Variable. *A variable
taking two, and only two, values.

*Distribution-Free
Statistics. *Statistical
methods that do not assume any particular population distribution.

*Empirical
Distribution. *An
arrangement from highest to lowest of actual scores from real
observations. .

*Endnote-Note
citing a particular source or making a brief explanatory comment placed at the
end of a research paper and arranged sequentially in relation to where the
reference appears in the paper.*

*Endothelial-* *the tissue which forms a single
layer of cells lining various organs and cavities of the body, especially the
blood vessels, heart, and lymphatic vessels. It is formed from the embryonic mesoderm.
Compare with epithelium.*

*Epithelium-
is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective
tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. It is a thin, continuous,
protective layer of cells. Epithelial tissues line the outer surfaces of organs
and blood vessels throughout the body, as well as the inner surfaces of
cavities in many internal organs. An example is the epidermis, the outermost
layer of the skin. There are three principal shapes of epithelial cell:
squamous, columnar, and cuboidal. These can be arranged in a single layer of
cells as simple epithelium, either squamous, columnar, or cuboidal, or in
layers of two or more cells deep as stratified (layered), or compound, either
squamous, columnar or cuboidal. In some tissues, a layer of columnar cells may
appear to be stratified due to the placement of the nuclei. This sort of tissue
is called pseudostratified. All glands are made up of epithelial cells.
Functions of epithelial cells include secretion, selective absorption,
protection, trans cellular transport, and sensing. Epithelial layers contain no
blood vessels, so they must receive nourishment via diffusion of substances
from the underlying connective tissue, through the basement membrane. Cell
junctions are well employed in epithelial tissues.*

*Error
Variance. *Variance
due to factors not controlled in the experiment; within-group variance.

*Eccentric
exercise **Eccentric
exercise or resistance training is currently being used as a form of
rehabilitation for sport injuries, but also as an alternative form of exercise
for the elderly, those affected by neurological disorders, COPD, cardiopulmonary
disorders, and cancer. Muscle loss is a big problem faced by the people
afflicted with the above disorders and many cannot participate in rigorous
exercise protocols. Eccentric muscle contractions produce high forces with
low-energy cost. According to Hortobágyi due to these properties eccentric
exercise has the greatest potential for muscle strengthening. To strengthen
muscle the external force must exceed the muscle while it lengthens. The
definition of eccentric contraction is almost the exact definition of muscle
strengthening. Perceived Muscle Damage: There is a stipulation regarding
eccentric contractions in that they actually cause muscle damage and injury.
Eccentric contraction may result in delayed onset muscle soreness however; the
contraction itself does not cause muscle damage or injury.* *eccentric exercise - Bing images*

*Exercise-induced
muscle injury (EMI)- in humans frequently occurs after unaccustomed
exercise, particularly if the exercise involves a large amount of eccentric
(muscle lengthening) contractions. Direct measures of exercise-induced muscle
damage include cellular and subcellular disturbances, particularly Z-line
streaming.*

*Expected
Value. *The mean
value of a random variable over an infinite number of samplings. The
expected value of a statistic is the mean of the sampling distribution of the
statistic.

*Experimental
Group. *A group
that receives a treatment in an experiment and whose dependent variable scores
are compared with those of a control group.

*Extraneous
Variable. *A
variable, other than the independent variable, that may affect the dependent
variable.

*F
Distribution. *A
theoretical sampling distribution of *F *values. There is a
different *F *distribution for each combination of degrees of
freedom.

*flow-mediated
dilation (FMD)* *Flow-mediated
dilation (FMD) refers to dilation (widening) of an artery when blood flow
increases in that artery. The primary cause of FMD is release of nitric oxide
by endothelial cells. To determine FMD, brachial artery dilation following a
transient period of forearm ischemia is measured using ultrasound. **https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flow-mediated_dilation#:~:text=Flow%2Dmediated%20dilation%20(FMD),ischemia%20is%20measured%20using%20ultrasound*

*F
Test. *A method
of determining the significance of the difference among two or more means.

*Factor. *Independent variable.

*Factorial
Design. *An
experimental design using two or more levels of two or more factors and
permitting an analysis of interaction effects between independent variables.

*Footnote-Note
citing a particular source or making a brief explanatory comment placed at the
bottom of a page corresponding to the item cited in the corresponding text
above.*

*Frequency. *The number of times a score occurs in
a distribution.

*Frequency
Polygon. *A
graph with quantitative scores on the X axis and frequencies on the

*functional/microinstability
leading to RC tendinosis/tendinopathy- The overhead throwing athlete is an
extremely challenging patient in sports medicine. The repetitive microtraumatic
stresses and extreme ranges of motion observed within the athlete’s shoulder
joint complex during the throwing motion constantly place the athlete at risk
for injury.* *https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3811734/*

*Y *axis. Each point on the graph
represents a score and the frequency of occurrence of that score. Points are
connected by a line.

*Goodness
of Fit. *Degree
to which observed data coincide with theoretical expectations.

*Grand
Mean. *The mean
of all the scores in an experiment.

*Grouped
Frequency Distribution. *An arrangement of scores from highest to lowest in which
scores are grouped together into equal-sized ranges called class intervals. The
number of scores occurring in each class interval is placed in a column beside
the appropriate Class interval.

*Hawthorne
Effect-The Hawthorne Effect refers to the fact that people will modify their
behavior simply because they are being observed. The effect gets its name from
one of the most famous industrial history experiments that took place at
Western Electric's factory in the Hawthorne suburb of Chicago in the late 1920s
and early 1930s.* *The
Hawthorne Effect occurs when individuals adjust their behaviour as a result of
being watched or observed. For instance, employees may work harder and more
diligently knowing their manager is closely watching, or children behave better
because they are being watched by their parents.*

*Hyperemia
Active hyperemia happens when there’s an increase in the blood supply to an
organ. This is usually in response to a greater demand for blood — for example,
if you’re exercising.*

*Passive
hyperemia is when blood can’t properly exit an organ, so it builds up in the
blood vessels. This type of hyperemia is also known as congestion.*

*HHistogram. *A graph with quantitative scores on
the X axis and frequencies on the

* Y *axis. A bar covering the range
from the lower to upper limit of each score or class interval is raised to the
level of that score's frequency. There is no space between the bars.

*Hypothesis. *A statement about the relationship
between two or more phenomena.

*Hypothesis
Testing. *The
process of hypothesizing a parameter and comparing (or testing) the parameter
with an empirical statistic in order to decide whether the parameter is
reasonable. Hypothesis Testing Tutorial

*Independent. *Events that have nothing to do with
each other. Occurrence or variation of one does not affect the occurrence
or variation of the other. Two sets of uncorrelated scores are

independent of each other.

*Independent-Samples
Design. *An
experimental design using samples whose dependent-variable scores cannot
logically be paired.

*Independent
Variable. *The
treatment variable; it is selected by the experimenter.

*Inferential
Statistics. *A
method of deciding between two or more alternative conclusions.

*Interaction. *A relationship between two factors
such that the effect of one treatment on the dependent variable depends upon
the level of the other treatment.

*Interpolation. *A method for determining a value
known to lie between two other values.

*interquartile
range (IQR)-* *The
IQR describes the middle 50% of values when ordered from lowest to highest. To
find the interquartile range (IQR), first find the median (middle value)
of the lower and upper half of the data. These values are quartile 1 (Q1) and
quartile 3 (Q3). **Interquartile range*

*Interval
Scale. *A
measurement scale in which equal differences between numbers stand for equal
differences in the thing measured. The zero point is arbitrarily defined.

*Least-Squares
Solution. *Method
of fitting a regression line such that the sums of the squared deviations from
the straight regression line will be a minimum.

*Level. *A treatment chosen from an
independent variable.

*Level of
Confidence. *The
confidence (1 - *a) *that a parameter lies within a given
interval.

*Level of
Significance. *The
probability level at which the null hypothesis is rejected.

*Line
Graph. *A graph
presenting the relationship between two variables.

*Linearity. *The condition wherein the "line
of best fit" through a scatterplot is a straight line. *Lower
Limit. *The bottom of the range of possible values that a score on a
quantitative variable

can take; for example, a score of 5 has 4.5 as its lower limit.

*Main
Effect. *The
deviation of one or more treatment means from the grand mean.

*Mann-Whitney
U Test. *A
nonparametric method used to determine whether two sets of ranked data based on
two independent samples came from the same population.

*Matched
Pairs. *A
correlated-samples design in which pairs of scores are matched.

*Mean. *The arithmetic average; the sum of
the scores divided by the number of scores.

*Mean
Square. *An ANOV
A term for the variance; a sum of squares divided by its degrees of freedom.

*Median. *The point that divides a distribution
of scores into two equal halves, so that half the scores are above the median
and half are below it.

*Meta-Analysis
-**What Is a Meta-Analysis?** **There are several ways that
individual studies can be summarized to help healthcare workers make decisions,
including narrative reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Both
narrative and systematic reviews are both qualitative in nature. Narrative
reviews are not very rigorous, but they focus on the very basics of a
topic. Systematic reviews are more rigorous than narrative reviews;
they focus on a single research question. For example, a systematic review will
focus specifically on the relationship between cervical cancer and long-term
use of oral contraceptives, while a narrative review may be about cervical
cancer. Meta-analyses are quantitative and more rigorous than both
types of reviews. In addition to providing an overview, these papers provide a
quantitative assessment of how well a treatment works or they may also provide
an estimate of how much more likely a person is to develop a disease if they
participate in a certain behavior.*

*Mode. *The score that occurs most frequently
in a distribution.

*Multiple
Comparisons. *Tests
of differences between treatment means or combinations of means following an ANOV
A.

*Multiple Correlation. *A correlation method that combines
intercorrelations among more than two variables into a single statistic.

*Natural
Pairs. *A
correlated-samples design, in which pairing occurs prior to the experiment.

*Nitroglycerin-induced
dilation Nitroglycerine- induced vasodilation, an index of
endothelium-independent vasodilation, assessed by sublingual administration of
nitroglycerine, has been used as a control test for FMD measurement to
differentiate endothelium-dependent from endothelium-independent vasodilation
because both endog- enous Nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation has been used as
a control test for flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) to differentiate
endothelium-dependent from endothelium-independent response when evaluating
endothelial function in humans. Recently, nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation
has also been reported to be impaired in patients with atherosclerosis.*

*Nominal
Scale. *A scale
of measurement in which numbers are used simply as names and have no real
quantitative value.

*Nonparametric
Methods. *Statistical
methods that do not require the estimation of parameters.

*Normal
Distribution. *A
theoretical distribution based on frequency of occurrence of chance events.

*Normality. *The condition of being distributed in
the form of the normal curve.

*Null
Hypothesis. *The
assumption that the difference between an observed statistic and a proposed
parameter is the result of chance.

*Observed
Frequency. *Number
of observations actually occurring in a category.

*One-Tailed
Test. *A
statistical test in which the critical region lies in one tail of the
distribution. https://www.statisticshowto.com/probability-and-statistics/hypothesis-testing/one-tailed-test-or-two/

*Operational
Definition. *A
definition that specifies a concrete meaning for a variable. The variable
is defined in terms of the operations of the experiment; for example, *hunger *may
be defined as "24 hours of food deprivation."

*Ordinal
Scale. *A
rank-ordered scale of measurement in which equal differences between numbers
do not represent equal differences between the things measured.

*Ordinate. *The vertical or *Y *axis
of a graph.

*Orthogonal. *Independent; uncorrelated.

*Parameter. *Some numerical characteristic of a
population.

*Parameter
Estimation. *Estimating
one particular point to be the parameter of a population.

*Partial
Correlation. *Technique
that allows the separation or partialing out of the effects of one
variable from the correlation of two other variables.

*Population. *All members of a specified group.

*posterior
superior impingement(PSI) Posterosuperior impingement, also known as internal
impingement, is a relatively uncommon form of shoulder impingement primarily
involving the infraspinatus tendon and the posterosuperior glenoid labrum. It
occurs when the shoulder is abducted and externally rotated (ABER position).
Clinical presentation patients present with posterior shoulder pain and
instability. It almost exclusively occurs in athletes who repetitively place
their shoulder into extreme abduction and external rotation such as throwers,
swimmers, volleyball players and tennis players. Pathology The extreme
abduction and external rotation results in repeated impingement of the
infraspinatus tendon and the posterior portion of the supraspinatus tendon
between the head of the humerus and the posterior superior rim of the glenoid.
There is resulting tendon degeneration, reactive humeral head cysts, and
glenoid labrum degeneration. **https://radiopaedia.org/articles/posterosuperior-impingement-of-the-shoulder?lang=us*

*power
analysis**-The
a priori power analysis is what is usually done when designing a study. This
tells you what sample size is needed to detect some level of effect with
inferential statistics (i.e. with p- values). ... It is important to note that
study design impacts power calculations and the interpretation of effect sizes.*

*Proportion. *A part of a whole.

P-Value= probability that the significant differences between groups is due to chance alone. The p value is the evidence against a null hypothesis. The smaller the p-value, the stronger the evidence that you should reject the null hypothesis. P values are expressed as decimals although it may be easier to understand what they are if you convert them to a percentage. For example, a p value of 0.0254 is 2.54%. https://www.statisticshowto.com/probability-and-statistics/statistics-definitions/p-value/#:~:text=The%20p%20value%20is%20the,value%20of%200.0254%20is%202.54%25

*Qualitative
Variable. *A
variable that exists in different kinds; measured on a nominal scale.

*Quantitative
Variable. *A
variable that exists in different
amounts. .

*Randomized,
blinded trial-* *Blinded
RCTs are commonly used to test the efficacy of medical interventions and may
additionally provide information about adverse effects, such as drug reactions.
A randomized controlled trial can provide compelling evidence that the study
treatment causes an effect on human health.*

*R andomized
controlled trial (or randomized control trial;*

*Random
Sample. *A
subset of a population chosen in such a way that all samples of the specified
size have an equal probability of being selected.

*Range. *The difference between the highest
and lowest scores plus I.

*Ratio
Scale. *A scale
that has all the characteristics of an interval scale, plus a true zero point.

*Raw
Score. *A score
as it is obtained in an experiment.

*Rectangular
Distribution. *A
distribution in which all scores have the same frequency.

*Regression
Coefficients. *The
values *a *(point where the regression line intersects
the Yaxis) and *b *(slope of the regression line).

*Regression
Equation. *An
equation used to predict particular values of *Y *for specific
values of X. *Regression Line. *The "line of best fit"
that runs through a scatterplot.

*Repeated
Measures. *An
experimental design in which more than one dependent-variable measure is taken
on each subject.

*Sample. *A subset of a population.

*Sampling
Distribution. *A
theoretical distribution of a statistic based on all possible random samples
drawn from the same population; used to determine probabilities.

*Sampling
Error. *The
tendency of sample statistics from the same population to vary from
one sample to another.

*Scatter
plot. *The plot
of points that results when a distribution of paired X and *Y *values
are plotted on a graph. '

*Scheffe Test. *A method of making all possible
comparisons after ANOV A.

*Simple
Effect. *The
difference between cell means in a factorial ANOV A.

*Simple
Frequency Distribution. *Scores arranged from highest to lowest, with the frequency of
each score placed in a column beside the score.

*Skewed
Distribution. *An
asymmetrical distribution. The skew may be positive (more low scores than
high, so that the frequency polygon is pointed toward the right) or negative
(more high scores than low, so that the frequency polygon is pointed toward the
left).

*Spearman's
Rho. *A
con-elation statistic for two sets of ranked data.

*Standard
Deviation. *The
square root of the mean of the squared deviations.

*Standard
Error. *The
standard deviation of a sampling distribution. The standard error (SE) of a** statistic
(usually an estimate of a parameter)** is** the standard deviation
of its sampling distribution or an estimate of** that** standard
deviation.** If the statistic is the sample mean, it is called the
standard error of the mean (SEM). The sampling distribution of a mean is
generated by repeated sampling from the same population and recording of the
sample means obtained. This forms a distribution of different means, and this
distribution has its own mean and variance. Mathematically, the variance of the
sampling distribution obtained is equal to the variance of the population
divided by the sample size. This is because as the sample size increases,
sample means cluster more closely around the population mean. Therefore, the
relationship between the standard error of the mean and the standard deviation
is such that, for a given sample size, the standard error of the mean equals
the standard deviation divided by the square root of the sample size. In other
words, the standard error of the mean is a measure of the dispersion of sample
means around the population mean. In regression analysis, the term
"standard error" refers either to the square root of the reduced
chi-squared statistic, or the standard error for a particular regression
coefficient (as used in, say, confidence intervals). Standard error - Wikipedia Standard deviation diagram.svg -
Wikimedia Commons

*Standard
Error of Estimate. *The standard deviation of the differences between predicted out comes
and actual outcomes.

*Standard
Error of the Difference The standard deviation of a sampling distribution of
differ*ences between
means.

*Standard
Score. *A score
expressed in standard-deviation units.

*Statistic. *Some numerical characteristic of a
sample.

*Stratified
Sample. *A
sample drawn in such a: way that it reflects exactly a known characteristic of
the population.

*Subacromial
impingement syndrome(SAIS-refers to the inflammation and irritation of the
rotator cuff tendons as they pass through the subacromial space, resulting in
pain, weakness, and reduced range of motion within the shoulder.*

*SAIS
encompasses a range of pathology including rotator cuff
tendinosis, subacromial bursitis, and calcific tendinitis. All these conditions
result in an attrition between the coracoacromial arch and the supraspinatus
tendon or subacromial bursa.*

*It occurs
most commonly in patients under 25 years, typically in active
individuals or in manual professions, and accounts for around 60% of all
shoulder pain presentations, making it the most common pathology of the
shoulder.*

*Subsample. *A subset of a sample.

*Sum of
Squares. *The
sum of the squared deviations from the mean; the numerator of the formula for
the standard deviation.

*t Distribution. *Theoretical distribution used to
determine significance of experimental results based on small
samples. .

*t Test. *Significance test that uses the *t *distribution.

*Theoretical
Distribution. *Arrangement
of hypothesized scores based on mathematical formulas and logic.

*Theoretical
Frequency. *Number
of observations expected in a category if the null hypothesis I is
true; expected frequency.

*Treatment. *A level of an independent variable.

*Two-
Tailed Test of Significance. *Any statistical test in which the critical region is divided
into the two tails of the distribution. A two tailed test tells you that you’re
finding the area in the middle of a distribution. In other words, your rejection region (the place where you
would reject the null
hypothesis) is
in **both tails. **For example, let’s say you were running a z test with an alpha level of 5% (0.05). In a one tailed
test, the entire 5% would be in a single tail. But with a two tailed test, that
5% is split between the two tails, giving you 2.5% (0.025) in each tail. https://www.statisticshowto.com/two-tailed-test/

*Type I Error. *Rejection of the null hypothesis when
it is true.

*Type II
Error. *Retention
of the null hypothesis when it is false.

*Upper
Limit. *The top
of the range of values a score from a quantitative variable can take; for
example, the number 5 has 5.5 as its upper limit.

*U
Value. *Statistic
used in the Mann-Whitney *U *test.

*Variability. *Differences among scores in a
distribution.

*Variable. *Something that exists in more than
one amount or in more than one form.

*Variance. *The square of the standard deviation.

*Wilcoxon
and Wilcox Multiple Comparisons. *A nonparametric method for independent samples in which all
possible pairs of treatments are compared.

*Wilcoxon
Rank-Sum Test. *A
nonparametric test for testing the difference between two independent samples.

*Wilcoxon
Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks Test. *between two correlated samples.

*Yates'
Correction. *A
correction for a 2 x 2 chi square when expected frequencies are few.

*z Score. *A score expressed in
standard-deviation units; used to compare the relative standing of scores in
two different distributions.

Z line streaming- is observed in muscle damage, as you said, but it's a specific type of muscle damage, damage which originates from the Z-line. The word streaming is used to describe the way by which the Z-lines drift away, slowly degenerating the structure.

Z-line streaming Muscle Damage- High force eccentric muscle contractions can result in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), prolonged loss of muscle strength, decreased range of motion, muscle swelling and an increase of muscle proteins in the blood. At the ultrastructural level Z-line streaming and myofibrillar disruptions have been taken as evidence for muscle damage.