Neurological Anatomy

Copyright Ted Nissen 2003

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1†††††† Cutaneous Nerves All 2

1.1††††††† Index. 3

1.2††††††† Cutaneous Nerves-Head 1 (31) 3

1.3††††††† Cutaneous Nerves-Head 2 (32) 3

1.4††††††† Cutaneous Nerves-Arms (33) 3

1.5††††††† Cutaneous Nerves-Hands (34) 3

1.6††††††† Cutaneous Nerves-Back (36) 3

1.7††††††† Cutaneous Nerves-Front of Chest (36) 3

1.8††††††† Cutaneous Nerves-Foot (35) 3

1.9††††††† Cutaneous Nerves-Legs (35) 3

2†††††† HEAD & NECK. 3

2.1††††††† OLFACTORY. 3

2.2††††††† OPTIC. 3

2.3††††††† OCULOMOTOR. 4

2.4††††††† TROCHELEAR. 4

2.5††††††† TRIGEMINAL. 4

2.6††††††† ABDUCENS. 6

2.7††††††† FACIAL. 6

2.8††††††† ACOUSTIC. 7

2.9††††††† GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL. 7

2.10†††††† VAGUS. 8

2.11†††††† SPINAL ACCESSORY. 9

2.12†††††† HYPOGLOSSAL. 10

2.13†††††† LESSER OCCIPITAL. 10

2.14†††††† GREATER AURICULAR. 11

2.15†††††† TRANSVERSE (ANT) CUT. 12

2.16†††††† SUPRACLAVICULAR. 13

2.17†††††† SUPRASCAPULAR. 14

2.18†††††† ANSA CERVICALIS (ANSA HYPOGLOSSI) 15

2.19†††††† PHRENIC. 16

2.20†††††† RECTUS CAPITIS LATERALIS N. 20

2.21†††††† RECTUS CAPITIS ANTERIOR N. 21

2.22†††††† LONGUS CAPITIS N. 22

2.23†††††† LONGUS COLI N. 23

2.24†††††† STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID N. 24

2.25†††††† TRAPEZIUS N. 26

2.26†††††† LEVATOR SCAPULAE N. 27

2.27†††††† SCALENUS NERVES. 28

2.28†††††† BRACHIAL PLEXUS. 29

2.29†††††† DORSAL SCAPULAR N. 30

2.30†††††† LONG THORACIC NERVE. 31

2.31†††††† SUBCLAVIUS N. 32

2.32†††††† UPPER SUBSCAPULAR N. 33

2.33†††††† THORACODORSAL N. (MIDDLE SUBSCAPULAR N.) 34

2.34†††††† LOWER SUBSCAPULAR N. 35

3†††††† Arms. 36

3.1††††††† SUPRACLAVICULAR. 36

3.2††††††† AXILLARY (U LAT CUT N) 38

3.3††††††† 2ND THOR INTERCSL N. 39

3.4††††††† MEDIAL BRACHIAL CUT N.(FLASH;MEDIAL CUT)(GRAY;LESSER INTERNAL CUT,N. OF WRISBERG) 40

3.5††††††† RADIAL. 41

3.6††††††† MUSCULOCUTANEOUS. 42

3.7††††††† MED ANTEBRACHIAL CUT N.(FLASH;MEDIALCUTANEOUS N. OF FOREARM),(GRAY; INTERNAL CUT N.) 43

4†††††† Hands. 44

4.1††††††† ULNAR. 44

4.2††††††† RADIAL. 45

4.3††††††† MEDIAN NERVE. 46

4.4. 47

4.5. 47

5†††††† HIP AND LEGS. 47

5.1††††††† 12TH THORACIC INTERCOSTAL (SUB COSTAL) 35.01. 47

5.2††††††† Lumbar Plexus (Spinal Segments & Nerves) (61) 48

5.3††††††† Lumbar Plexus (62) 49

5.4††††††† Lumbar Plexus (Muscular Branches and Relationships) (63) 52

5.5††††††† Nerves from Ventral Rami of Lumbar Plexus (64) 54

5.6††††††† Iliohypogastric Nerve (65) (Blank) 56

5.7††††††† ILLIOHYPOGASTRIC (65) 56

5.8††††††† Ilio-Inquinal Nerve (66) (Blank) 58

5.9††††††† ILLIO-INGUINAL (66) 58

5.10†††††† Genitofemoral Nerve (67) (Blank) 60

5.11†††††† GENITAL FEMORAL (67) 60

5.12†††††† Nerves from Ventral Division of Ventral Rami Lumbar Plexus (68) 61

5.13†††††† Obturator Nerve (69) (Blank) 63

5.14†††††† OBTURATOR (69) 63

5.15†††††† Accessory Obturator Nerve (70) (Blank) 66

5.16†††††† ACCESSORY OBTURATOR (70) 66

5.17†††††† Lumbar Plexus (Nerves from Dorsal Divisions-Ventral Rami (71) 67

5.18†††††† Lateral Cutaneous Femoral Nerve (72) (Blank) 69

5.19†††††† Femoral Nerve (Abdominal Branches) (73) (Blank) 70

5.20†††††† Femoral Nerve (Anterior Division) (74) (Blank) 71

5.21†††††† LAT FEM CUT (?) 71

5.22†††††† FEMORAL NERVE (?) 72

5.23†††††† Femoral Nerve (Posterior Division) (75) 74

5.24†††††† Sacral Plexus (Spinal Segments & Nerves) (76) 78

5.25†††††† Sacral Plexus (L4, L5, S1, S2, S3) (77) 79

5.26†††††† Sacral Plexus (Nerves from Ventral Divisions of Ventral Rami) (78) 82

5.27†††††† Sacral Plexus (Nerves from Dorsal Divisions of Ventral Rami) (79) 82

5.28†††††† QUADRATUS FEMORIS N. (80) 83

5.29†††††† OBTURATOR INTERNUS (81) 84

5.30†††††† PIRIFORMIS (82) 85

5.31†††††† SUPERIOR GLUTEAL (83) 85

5.32†††††† INFERIOR GLUTEAL (84) 87

5.33†††††† POSTERIOR FEMORAL CUTANEOUS (85) 88

5.34†††††† Sciatic Nerve (86) 89

5.35†††††† Tibial Nerve (Branches Arising between Gastrocnemius Heads) (87) 92

5.36†††††† Tibial Nerve (Branches Arising in the Leg) (88) 96

5.37†††††† Tibial Nerve (Medial Sural and Medial Calcanean Cutaneous Branches) (89) 98

5.38†††††† Medial Plantar (Tibial) (90) 100

5.39†††††† Lateral Plantar Nerve & Superficial Branch (Tibial) (91) 104

5.40†††††† Lateral Plantar Nerve Deep Branch (Tibial) (92) 107

5.41†††††† Common Peroneal (Fibular) Nerve (93) 109

5.42†††††† Deep Peroneal (Anterior Tibial) Nerve (Branches Arising in the Leg) (94) 112

5.43†††††† Deep Peroneal Medial and Lateral Terminal Branches (95) 115

5.44†††††† Superficial Peroneal Nerve (96) 117

5.45†††††† Superficial Peroneal Nerve Medial and Lateral Terminal Branches (97) 119

5.46†††††† Perforating Cutaneous Nerve (98) (Blank) 122

5.47†††††† Sacral Muscular Branches (4th Sacral) (99) (Blank) 123

5.48†††††† Pudendal Nerve: Inferior Rectal Branch (Inferior Hemeorrhoidal Nerve) (100) (Blank) 124

5.49†††††† Pudendal Nerve (Perineal Branch) (101) (Blank) 125

5.50†††††† Pudendal Nerve (Dorsal Nerve of Penis or Clitoris) (102) (Blank) 126

5.51†††††† Blank. 128

6†††††† TORSO. 128

6.1††††††† LATERAL PECTORAL. 128

6.2††††††† MEDIAL PECTORAL. 129

6.3††††††† 1ST THOR INTERCSTL N. 130

6.4††††††† 2ND THOR INTRCSTL N. 132

6.5††††††† UPPER INTERCSTL=T3-6. 133

6.6††††††† LWR INTCSTL N.=T7-11. 134

6.7††††††† 1ST DORSAL RAMUS(SUBOCCIPITAL N) 135

6.8††††††† 2ND DOR RAMUS(GREATER OCCIPITAL N) 136

6.9††††††† 3RD DORSAL RAMUS. 137

6.10†††††† LOWR CER DOR RAM (C4-8) 138

6.11†††††† UPP THOR DOR RAM (T1-6) 139

6.12†††††† LOWR THOR DOR RAM (T7-12) 140

6.13†††††† LUMBAR DOR RAM (L1-5) 141

6.14†††††† UPPER SACRAL DOR RAM (S1-3) 142

6.15†††††† LWR SAC&COC DR R(ANOCOCCYGEAL N) (S4,5,C01) 143

6.16. 145

6.17. 146

 

 

 

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1    Cutaneous Nerves All

1.1  Index

1.1.1  http://www.anatomyfacts.com/Muscle/cutaneousnerves.htm

1.2  Cutaneous Nerves-Head 1 (31)

1.2.1  http://www.anatomyfacts.com/Muscle/Illustrations.htm#CNH1

1.3  Cutaneous Nerves-Head 2 (32)

1.3.1  http://www.anatomyfacts.com/Muscle/Illustrations.htm#CNH2

1.4  Cutaneous Nerves-Arms (33)

1.4.1  http://www.anatomyfacts.com/Muscle/Illustrations.htm#CNA

1.5  Cutaneous Nerves-Hands (34)

1.5.1  http://www.anatomyfacts.com/Muscle/Illustrations.htm#CNH

1.6  Cutaneous Nerves-Back (36)

1.6.1  http://www.anatomyfacts.com/Muscle/Illustrations.htm#CNB

1.7  Cutaneous Nerves-Front of Chest (36)

1.7.1  http://www.anatomyfacts.com/Muscle/Illustrations.htm#CNFC

1.8  Cutaneous Nerves-Foot (35)

1.8.1  http://www.anatomyfacts.com/Muscle/Illustrations.htm#CNF

1.9  Cutaneous Nerves-Legs (35)

1.9.1  http://www.anatomyfacts.com/Muscle/Illustrations.htm#CNL

2    HEAD & NECK

2.1  OLFACTORY

Back Table of Contents References

2.1.1  DESCRIPTION # 1: PATH, FUNCTION

2.1.1.1     SMELL

2.1.2  ROOTS

2.1.2.1     CN 1

2.2  OPTIC

2.2.1  DESCRIPTION # 1: PATH, FUNCTION

2.2.1.1     VISION

2.2.2  ROOTS

2.2.2.1     CN 2

2.3  OCULOMOTOR

2.3.1  DESCRIPTION # 1: PATH, FUNCTION

2.3.1.1     EYE MOVEMENTS; MOVEMENT OF EYE BALL, EYELID, CONSTRICTION OF LENS FOR NEAR VISION

2.3.2  MUSCULAR BRANCHES(OCCULO)

2.3.2.1     SUPERIOR RECTUS

2.3.2.2     INFERIOR RECTUS

2.3.2.3     MEDIAL RECTUS

2.3.2.4     INFERIOR OBLIQUE

2.3.2.5     LEVATOR PALPEBRAE SUPERIORIS

2.3.3  ROOTS

2.3.3.1     CN 3

2.4  TROCHELEAR

Back Table of Contents References

2.4.1  DESCRIPTION # 1: PATH, FUNCTION

2.4.1.1     EYE MOVEMENTS; EYE BALL MEVEMENT

2.4.2  MUSCULAR BRANCHES(TROCH)

2.4.2.1     SUPERIOR OBLIQUE

2.4.3  ROOTS

2.4.3.1     CN4

2.5  TRIGEMINAL

Back Table of Contents References

2.5.1  DESCRIPTION # 1: PATH, FUNCTION

2.5.1.1     SENSATION TO FACE, CHEWING. SUPRFICIAL SEN=PONS VAROLII, DEEP SEN= LONG TRACT OF MEDULLA,LWR SEN=SUBSTANIA GELATINOSA ROLANDO, SEMILUNAR(GASSERIAN) GANGLION=LODGED IN AN OSTEO-FIBROUS SPACE THE CAVUM MECKELII NEAR THE APEX OF THE PETROUS PORTION OF THE TEMPORAL BONE.

2.5.2  Illustration

2.5.2.1     Reference Number

2.5.2.1.1  31.01

2.5.2.2     Illustration Link

2.5.2.2.1  Trigeminal

2.5.3  NEUROLOGICAL BRANCHES

2.5.3.1     OPHTHALMIC (TRI)

2.5.3.1.1  DESCRIPTION # 1: PATH, FUNCTION
2.5.3.1.1.1 PASSES FORWARD ALONG OUTER WALL OF CAVERNOUS SINUS AND JUST BEFORE ENTERING THE ORBIT THR T SPHENOIDAL FISSURE DIVIDES IN THRE BRANCHES LACHRYMAL, FRONTAL & NASAL. IT THEN PASSES THRU SUP ORBITAL FISSURE
2.5.3.1.2  DESCRIPTION # 2: CUTANEOUS AREA, ADDITIONAL COMMENTS
2.5.3.1.2.1 U EYELID,MUCOUS LINING OF THE EYE,SKIN OF EYEBROW,EYEBALL,LACRIMAL GL,NAS CAVITY, SIDE OF NOSE, FOREHEAD,A 1/2 OF SCLP.
2.5.3.1.3  Reference Number
2.5.3.1.3.1 31.011
2.5.3.1.4  Illustration Link
2.5.3.1.4.1 Ophthalmic

2.5.3.2     MAXILLARY (TRI)

2.5.3.2.1  DESCRIPTION # 1: PATH, FUNCTION
2.5.3.2.1.1 FORAMEN ROTUNDUM
2.5.3.2.2  DESCRIPTION # 2: CUTANEOUS AREA, ADDITIONAL COMMENTS
2.5.3.2.2.1 MUCOSA OF NOSE, PALATE, PHARYNX, U TEETH, U LIPL EYELID.
2.5.3.2.3  Reference Number
2.5.3.2.3.1 31.012
2.5.3.2.4  Illustration Link
2.5.3.2.4.1 Maxillary

2.5.3.3     MANDIBULAR (TRI)

2.5.3.3.1  DESCRIPTION # 1: PATH, FUNCTION
2.5.3.3.1.1 FORAMEN OVALE
2.5.3.3.2  DESCRIPTION # 2: CUTANEOUS AREA, ADDITIONAL COMMENTS
2.5.3.3.2.1 A 2/3 TOUGUE L TEETH, SKIN O MANDIBLE,CHECK & MUCOSA,SIDE O HEAD IN F OF EAR,
2.5.3.3.3  Reference Number
2.5.3.3.3.1 31.011
2.5.3.3.4  Illustration Link
2.5.3.3.4.1 Mandibular

2.5.4  MUSCULAR BRANCHES (MANDIBULAR)

2.5.4.1     MASSETER

2.5.4.2     TEMPORALIS

2.5.4.3     MEDIAL PTERYGOID

2.5.4.4     LATERAL PTERYGOID

2.5.4.5     TENSOR VELI PALATINI

2.5.4.6     DIGASTRIC (ANTERIOR BELLY)

2.5.4.7     MYLOHYOID

2.5.5  ROOTS

2.5.5.1     CN 5

2.6  ABDUCENS

Back Table of Contents References

2.6.1  DESCRIPTION # 1: PATH, FUNCTION

EYE MOVEMENTS; EYE BALL MEVEMENT

2.6.2  MUSCULAR BRANCHES(ABDUCENS)

2.6.2.1     LATERAL RECTUS

2.6.3  ROOTS

2.6.3.1     CN 6

2.7  FACIAL

Back Table of Contents References

2.7.1  DESCRIPTION # 1: PATH, FUNCTION

FACIAL EXPRESSION, TASTE,SALIVA SECRETION, TEARS.

2.7.2  MUSCULAR BRANCHES (FACIAL)

2.7.2.1     FRONTALIS (EPICRANIUS 1)

2.7.2.2     OCCIPITALIS (EPICRANIUS 2)

2.7.2.3     ORBICULARIS ORIS

2.7.2.4     ZYGOMATICUS MAJOR

2.7.2.5     LEVATOR LABIL SUPERIORIS

2.7.2.6     DEPRESSOR LABII INFERIORIS

2.7.2.7     BUCCINATOR

2.7.2.8     MENTALIS

2.7.2.9     PLATYSMA

2.7.2.10  RISORIUS

2.7.2.11  ORBICULARIS OCULI

2.7.2.12  CORRUGATOR SUPERCILLI

2.7.2.13  STYLOHYOID

2.7.2.14  DIAGASTRIC (POSTERIOR BELLY)

2.7.2.15  STAPEDIUS

2.7.3  CUTANEOUS (FACIAL)

2.7.3.1     DESCRIPTION # 1: PATH, FUNCTION

TASTE IN ANTERIOR TWO-THIRDS OF TONGUE. SENSATION TO SOFT PALATE. INNERVATION OF SALIVARY GLANDS.

2.7.4  ROOTS

2.7.4.1     CN 7

2.8  ACOUSTIC

2.8.1  DESCRIPTION # 1: PATH, FUNCTION

HEARING, EQUILIBRIUM

2.8.2  ROOTS

2.8.2.1     CN 8

2.9  GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL

Back Table of Contents References

2.9.1  DESCRIPTION # 1: PATH, FUNCTION

TASTE, SPEECH

2.9.2  MUSCULAR BRANCHES(GLOSSO)

2.9.2.1     STYLOPHARYNGEUS

2.9.3  CUTANEOUS(GLOSSO)

TASTE IN POSTERIOR 2/3 RDS OF TONGUE. SENSATION TO FAUCES, TONSILS, PHARYNX, AND SOFT PALATE.

2.9.4  ROOTS

2.9.4.1     CN 9

2.10 VAGUS

Back Table of Contents References

2.10.1              DESCRIPTION # 1: PATH, FUNCTION

PARASYMPATHETIC, VISERAL MUSCLE MOVEMENT, SENSATION FROM ORGANS

2.10.2              CUTANEOUS(VAGUS)

SENSORY FIBERS TO SKIN IN BACK OF AURICLE, POSTERIOR PORTION OF EXTERNAL ACOUSTIC MEATUS, PHARYNX, LARYNX, THORACIC AND ABDOMINAL VISCERA.

2.10.3              RECURRENT LARYNGEAL(VAGUS)

2.10.3.1  MUSCULAR BRANCHES(RECURR LARG)

2.10.3.1.1         POSTERIOR CRICOARYTENOID
2.10.3.1.2         LATERAL CRICOARYTENOID
2.10.3.1.3         ARYTENOID
2.10.3.1.4         THYROARYTENOID

2.10.4              EXTERNAL LARYNGEAL(VAGUS)

2.10.4.1  MUSCULAR BRANCHES(EXTER LARG)

2.10.4.1.1         CRICOTHYROID

2.10.5              PHARYNGEAL BRANCH(VAGUS)

2.10.5.1  MUSCULAR BRANCHES(PHARYN)

2.10.5.1.1         INFERIOR CONSTRICTOR

ADDITIONAL INNERVATION: WITH FILIMENTS FROM SPINAL ACCESSARY NERVE WHICH TRAVELS THRU PHARYNGEAL PLEXUS.

2.10.5.1.2         MIDDLE CONSTRICTOR

ADDITIONAL INNERVATION: WITH FILIMENTS FROM SPINAL ACCESSARY NERVE WHICH TRAVELS THRU PHARYNGEAL PLEXUS.

2.10.5.1.3         SUPERIOR CONSTRICTOR

ADDITIONAL INNERVATION: WITH FILIMENTS FROM SPINAL ACCESSARY NERVE WHICH TRAVELS THRU PHARYNGEAL PLEXUS.

2.10.5.1.4         PALATOGLOSSUS

ADDITIONAL INNERVATION: WITH FILIMENTS FROM SPINAL ACCESSARY NERVE WHICH TRAVELS THRU PHARYNGEAL PLEXUS.

2.10.5.1.5         SALPINGOPHARYNGEUS

ADDITIONAL INNERVATION: WITH FILIMENTS FROM SPINAL ACCESSARY NERVE WHICH TRAVELS THRU PHARYNGEAL PLEXUS.

2.10.5.1.6         PALATOPHARYNGEUS

ADDITIONAL INNERVATION: WITH FILIMENTS FROM SPINAL ACCESSARY NERVE WHICH TRAVELS THRU PHARYNGEAL PLEXUS.

2.10.5.1.7         LEVATOR VELI PALATINI

ADDITIONAL INNERVATION: WITH FILIMENTS FROM SPINAL ACCESSARY NERVE WHICH TRAVELS THRU PHARYNGEAL PLEXUS.

2.10.5.1.8         MUSCULUS UVULAE

ADDITIONAL INNERVATION: WITH FILIMENTS FROM SPINAL ACCESSARY NERVE WHICH TRAVELS THRU PHARYNGEAL PLEXUS.

2.10.5.1.9         PALATOGLOSSUS

ADDITIONAL INNERVATION: WITH FILIMENTS FROM SPINAL ACCESSARY NERVE WHICH TRAVELS THRU PHARYNGEAL PLEXUS.

2.10.5.1.10      PALATOPHARYNGEUS

ADDITIONAL INNERVATION: WITH FILIMENTS FROM SPINAL ACCESSARY NERVE WHICH TRAVELS THRU PHARYNGEAL PLEXUS.

2.10.6              ROOTS

2.10.6.1  CN 10

2.10.7              References

2.10.7.1   

2.11 SPINAL ACCESSORY

Back Table of Contents References

2.11.1              DESCRIPTION # 1: PATH, FUNCTION

SWALLOWING, MOVEMENT OF HEAD

2.11.2              ROOTS

2.11.2.1  CN11

2.11.3              MUSCULAR BRANCHES(SPINL ACCES)

2.11.3.1  STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID

2.11.3.1.1         CARD= 21
2.11.3.1.2         INNERVATION
2.11.3.1.2.1           (XI(C1-5) MOTOR)

2.11.3.2  TRAPEZIUS

2.11.3.2.1         CARD= 22
2.11.3.2.2         INNERVATION
2.11.3.2.2.1           (XI(C1-5) MOTOR)

2.12 HYPOGLOSSAL

Back Table of Contents References

2.12.1              DESCRIPTION # 1: PATH, FUNCTION

MOVEMENT OF TONGUE DURNING SPEECH AND SWALLOWING.

2.12.2              ROOTS

2.12.2.1  CN12

2.12.3              MUSCULAR BRANCHES(HYPO)

2.12.3.1  GENIOGLOSSUS

2.12.3.2  STYLOGLOSSUS

2.12.3.3  HYOGLOSSUS

2.12.3.4  STYLOHYOID

2.12.3.5  MYHLOHYOID

2.12.3.6  OMOHYOID(INFERIOR BELLY)

2.12.3.7  THYROHYOID(DECENDING HYPOGLOSSAL)

2.12.3.8  GENIOHYOID

2.12.3.9  INTRINSIC MUS OF TONGUE

2.13 LESSER OCCIPITAL

Back Table of Contents References

2.13.1              DESCRIPTION # 1: PATH, FUNCTION-LESIONS

A FOCAL LESION WILL RESULT IN PARESTHESIA OR LACK OF SENSATION TO THE SKIN DESCRIBED IN THE CUTANEOUS SECTION OF THIS NERVE.

2.13.2              DESCRIPTION # 2: CUTANEOUS AREA, ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

MID NECK ALONG THE P BORDER OF SCM &PRT O MASTOID PRO A T SCALP BEH T LWAR & UPPER MEDIAN PRT O AURICLE.

2.13.3              ROOTS

2.13.3.1  C2-C3

2.13.3.2  SPINAL NERVE

2.13.3.3  VENTRAL

2.13.4              NUMBER

2.13.4.1  32.01

2.13.5              CARD

2.13.5.1  9

2.14 GREATER AURICULAR

Back Table of Contents References

2.14.1              DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.14.1.1  .

2.14.2              NUMBER

2.14.2.1  35

2.14.3              REFERENCE

2.14.3.1   

2.14.4              ROOTS

2.14.4.1   

2.14.4.2  Lumbar Plexus

2.14.4.3  VENTRAL

2.14.5              DIVISION

2.14.5.1  Dorsal Ventral

2.14.5.2   

2.14.6              CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.14.6.1   

2.14.6.1.1        

2.14.6.2   

2.14.6.2.1         .

2.14.7              ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.14.7.1   

2.14.7.1.1          

2.14.8              MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.14.8.1   

2.14.8.2   

2.14.8.3   

2.14.8.4   

2.14.8.5   

2.14.8.6   

2.15 TRANSVERSE (ANT) CUT

Back Table of Contents References

2.15.1              DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.15.1.1  .

2.15.2              NUMBER

2.15.2.1  35

2.15.3              REFERENCE

2.15.3.1   

2.15.4              ROOTS

2.15.4.1   

2.15.4.2  Lumbar Plexus

2.15.4.3  VENTRAL

2.15.5              DIVISION

2.15.5.1  Dorsal Ventral

2.15.5.2   

2.15.6              CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.15.6.1   

2.15.6.1.1        

2.15.6.2   

2.15.6.2.1         .

2.15.7              ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.15.7.1   

2.15.7.1.1          

2.15.8              MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.15.8.1   

2.15.8.2   

2.15.8.3   

2.15.8.4   

2.15.8.5   

2.15.8.6   

2.16 SUPRACLAVICULAR

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2.16.1              DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.16.1.1  .

2.16.2              NUMBER

2.16.2.1  35

2.16.3              REFERENCE

2.16.3.1   

2.16.4              ROOTS

2.16.4.1   

2.16.4.2  Lumbar Plexus

2.16.4.3  VENTRAL

2.16.5              DIVISION

2.16.5.1  Dorsal Ventral

2.16.5.2   

2.16.6              CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.16.6.1   

2.16.6.1.1        

2.16.6.2   

2.16.6.2.1         .

2.16.7              ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.16.7.1   

2.16.7.1.1          

2.16.8              MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.16.8.1   

2.16.8.2   

2.16.8.3   

2.16.8.4   

2.16.8.5   

2.16.8.6   

2.17 SUPRASCAPULAR

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2.17.1              DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.17.1.1  .

2.17.2              NUMBER

2.17.2.1  35

2.17.3              REFERENCE

2.17.3.1   

2.17.4              ROOTS

2.17.4.1   

2.17.4.2  Lumbar Plexus

2.17.4.3  VENTRAL

2.17.5              DIVISION

2.17.5.1  Dorsal Ventral

2.17.5.2   

2.17.6              CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.17.6.1   

2.17.6.1.1        

2.17.6.2   

2.17.6.2.1         .

2.17.7              ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.17.7.1   

2.17.7.1.1          

2.17.8              MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.17.8.1   

2.17.8.2   

2.17.8.3   

2.17.8.4   

2.17.8.5   

2.17.8.6   

2.18 ANSA CERVICALIS (ANSA HYPOGLOSSI)

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2.18.1              DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.18.1.1  .

2.18.2              NUMBER

2.18.2.1  35

2.18.3              REFERENCE

2.18.3.1   

2.18.4              ROOTS

2.18.4.1   

2.18.4.2  Lumbar Plexus

2.18.4.3  VENTRAL

2.18.5              DIVISION

2.18.5.1  Dorsal Ventral

2.18.5.2   

2.18.6              CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.18.6.1   

2.18.6.1.1        

2.18.6.2   

2.18.6.2.1         .

2.18.7              ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.18.7.1   

2.18.7.1.1          

2.18.8              MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.18.8.1   

2.18.8.2   

2.18.8.3   

2.18.8.4   

2.18.8.5   

2.18.8.6   

2.19 PHRENIC (phrenic19)

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2.19.1              Spinal Roots C3, C4, & C5

2.19.1.1  .

2.19.2              Cutaneous Branches

2.19.2.1  None

2.19.3              Sensory Branches

2.19.3.1  The anterior, anterolateral and posterior branches supply Proprioceptive endings in the diaphragm, parietal peritoneum of the diaphragm, and diaphragmatic pleura related to the central tendon and musculature.

2.19.4              Muscular Branches-To the Diaphragm divided into three branches

2.19.4.1  A=Anterior (sternal) branches

2.19.4.1.1         Supply the muscular fibers anterior to the central tendon.

2.19.4.2  B=Anterolateral branches

2.19.4.2.1         Supply the muscular fibers anterior to the lateral leaf of the central tendon

2.19.4.3  C=Posterior branches

2.19.4.3.1         Supply the muscular fibers posterior to the central tendon, including the crural fibers.

2.19.5              Articular Branches

2.19.5.1  None

2.19.6              Lesions

2.19.6.1  Complete section of the phrenic nerve will produce paralysis and atrophy of corresponding part of the diaphragm. Unilateral lesion: few or no symptoms may be exhibited. Bilateral lesion: usually from damage to the cervical spinal cords. Presents as severe dyspnea (difficult or laboured respiration-shortness of breath) upon slightest exertion, over activity of accessory respiratory muscles, difficulty in coughing and sneezing and atrophy of diaphragm. If an accessory phrenic nerve exists and escapes damage the paralysis will be incomplete.

2.19.7              Note

2.19.7.1  An accessory phrenic nerve would branch from the nerve to the subclavius or ansa cervicalis.

2.19.8              Path Description

2.19.8.1  The Phrenic Nerve (n. phrenicus; internal respiratory nerve of Bell) contains motor and sensory fibers in the proportion of about two to one. It arises chiefly from the fourth cervical nerve, but receives a branch from the third and another from the fifth; (the fibers from the fifth occasionally come through the nerve to the Subclavius.) It descends to the root of the neck, running obliquely across the front of the Scalenus anterior, and beneath the Sternocleidomastoideus, the inferior belly of the Omohyoideus, and the transverse cervical and transverse scapular vessels. It next passes in front of the first part of the subclavian artery, between it and the subclavian vein, and, as it enters the thorax, crosses the internal mammary artery near its origin. Within the thorax, it descends nearly vertically in front of the root of the lung, and then between the pericardium and the mediastinal pleura, to the diaphragm, where it divides into branches, which pierce that muscle, and are distributed to its under surface. In the thorax it is accompanied by the pericardiacophrenic branch of the internal mammary artery.

2.19.8.2  ††The two phrenic nerves differ in their length, and also in their relations at the upper part of the thorax.††† 22

2.19.8.3  ††The right nerve is situated more deeply, and is shorter and more vertical in direction than the left; it lies lateral to the right innominate vein and superior vena cava.††† 23

2.19.8.4  ††The left nerve is rather longer than the right, from the inclination of the heart to the left side, and from the diaphragm being lower on this than on the right side. At the root of the neck it is crossed by the thoracic duct; in the superior mediastinal cavity it lies between the left common carotid and left subclavian arteries, and crosses superficial to the vagus on the left side of the arch of the aorta.

2.19.8.1  Each nerve supplies filaments to the pericardium and pleura, and at the root of the neck is joined by a filament from the sympathetic, and, occasionally, by one from the ansa hypoglossi. Branches have been described as passing to the peritoneum.†††

2.19.8.2  ††From the right nerve, one or two filaments pass to join in a small phrenic ganglion with phrenic branches of the celiac plexus; and branches from this ganglion are distributed to the falciform and coronary ligaments of the liver, the suprarenal gland, inferior vena cava, and right atrium. From the left nerve, filaments pass to join the phrenic branches of the celiac plexus, but without any ganglionic enlargement; and a twig is distributed to the left adrenal gland(suprarenal gland).

2.19.8.3  The phrenic nerve arises from the third, fourth, and fifth cervical spinal nerves (C3-C5). It provides motor innervation to the diaphragm and is thus responsible for the act of breathing. In addition, it provides sensory innervation for many components of the mediastinum and pleura, as well as the upper abdomen, especially the liver and gall bladder. Pain arising from structures served by the phrenic nerve is often "referred" to other somatic regions served by spinal nerves C3-C5. For instance, angina pectoris classically is felt both in the chest and in the left arm. Likewise, a liver abscess close to the diaphragm will be felt in the right shoulder.

2.19.8.4  Both phrenic nerves run from C3, C4 and C5 along the anterior scalene muscle deep to the carotid sheath. The right phrenic nerve passes over the right brachiocephalic artery, the subclavian vein, and the superior vena cava and then crosses the root of the right lung and then leaves the thorax by passing through the vena cava hiatus opening in the diaphragm at the level of T10. The right phrenic nerve passes over the right atrium. The left phrenic nerve passes over the left ventricle and pierces the diaphragm separately.

2.19.8.5  Both these nerves supply motor fibres to the diaphragm and sensory fibres to the fibrous pericardium, mediastinal pleura and diaphragmatic peritoneum.

2.19.8.6  Irritation of the phrenic nerve leads to the Hiccup Reflex, which is due to spasms of the diaphram pushing air that hits the closed folds of the glottis.

2.19.1              Functional Anatomy

2.19.1.1  The Phrenic Nerve contains twice as many motor nerve fibers as sensory fibers. The Phrenic Nerve arises mostly from fourth cervical nerve (C4), but receives a branch from the third (C3) and another from the fifth (C5). The phrenic nerve http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phrenic_nerve forms from both the cervical http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus804.html ††and Brachial Plexus http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus807.html.The motor fibers send nerve impulses from the brain (efferent) to the diaphragm muscle, which then tightens. When the diaphragm muscle contracts it increases the volume of the cavity in which the lungs are contained. This expands the lungs and allows you to take a deep breath, cough, or sneeze. If the phrenic nerve is completely cut (Complete section) it becomes very difficult to breathe (Dyspnea (difficult or laboured respiration)). The afferent sensory fibers of the Phrenic Nerve send impulses to the spinal cord from the following structures; to the hearts pericardium and pleura of the lungs, Mediastinum (non-delineated group of structures in the thorax (chest)), inferior vena cava, and right atrium, peritoneum (smooth transparent serous membrane that lines the cavity of the abdomen), falciform and coronary ligaments of the liver, and adrenal gland (suprarenal gland). Some references indicate phrenic sensorynerve connections to the gall bladder (although one references mentions=no specifics are given http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phrenic_nerve), capsule of the liver, and pancreas (As he stated in his article). I will then assume that these do not exist until otherwise informed. The phrenic nerve sensory fibers will refer pain from the aforementioned structures it supplies to other somatic regions also supplied by the nerve roots that form the phrenic nerve (C3-5). Dermatomal, sclerotomal and or proprioceptive pain referral is possible. For example heart disease (angina pectoris) may be felt in the chest and or down the left arm. Liver or Gall bladder problems near the diaphragm may be felt in the right shoulder. Pain in the shoulder or down the arm from irritated visceral structures does not constitute prima facie evidence for phrenic nerve transmission of psychological stress nor does it necessarily imply a role in more complex Orthopedic, muscular and or skeletal problems.

2.19.2              Theory WARNING LABEL; I am not a neurologist and THIS IS A THEORY. When Iím not sure about something I will mark it with a (?=not sure)

2.19.2.1  The sensory fibers of the phrenic nerve supply structures, which are related to increased exertion e.g. the heart, membranes in the chest (Mediastinum), abdominal membranes attached to the diaphragm (?), ligaments which are attached to the diaphragm (?), and endocrine glands, which give us the energy for exertion. The phrenic nerve forms a reflex arc with its motor nerves in the spinal cord (?). It does not need to be connected to the higher brain to function properly and therefore does not serve as a conduit to disperse the stress of negative thinking. The primary function of the phrenic nerves Proprioceptive sensory fibers is to tell its motor nerves when we are exerting ourselves; running walking fighting ect so as to give more juice to the diaphragm (to increase O2 delivery). If the heart is pumping away because we are on the last 100 yards of a killer marathon this feedback loop is just what the doctor ordered. Its very much like an automatic pilot that instantly without your conscious thought initiates a reflex arc with the motor fibers in the spinal cord (?) to increase contraction of the diaphragm muscle during heavy exertion. The function of the phrenic nerve as primarily a motor nerve is evident in its neuroanatomy with twice as many motor fibers as sensory fibers. None of its motor or sensory fibers are connected with rotator cuff, capsule of the shoulder, ligaments or muscles of the neck ect. Because the phrenic nerve forms from the cervical and brachial plexus (A plexus looks like macramť done by someone with severe ADHD) and I am not intimately familiar with the neuroanatomy of these structures so it is not clear to me if some connection exists to the accessory nerve (Cranial Nerve). I will assume there is no connection until otherwise informed. Therefore there is no mind body connection with the phrenic nerve serving as a conduit displacing psychological stress. Further because the motor portion of the phrenic doesnít innervate any of the sacs and tubes mentioned by Dr Alexander in his article [1] there can be no cringing of sacs & shortening of tubes. The motor portion of the phrenic nerve only innervates to the diaphragm muscle at least according to all of the anatomical books Iíve looked at. I realize it feels that way when you are anxious. Perhaps there are other explanations but the phrenic circuit is not one of them. Perhaps though there are other connections, which I do not have the neuroanatomical knowledge to explore. I believe (?) the shoulder joint capsule both its tendons and perhaps connective tissue are innervated dermatomally, sclerotomally (area of bone innervated by a single spinal segment), and perhaps proprioceptivly (sensory nerves embedded with connective tissue/muscle to provide joint positional information) by the C5 nerve. I donít think this should affect the simple reflex arc between the motor and sensory fibers of the phrenic nerve whose primary purpose is to increase contraction of the diaphragm during heavy exertion. I will assume it does not unless otherwise informed.

2.19.3              Hypothesis

2.19.3.1  Complete section of the sensory fibers of the phrenic nerve will significantly decrease aerobic capacity during heavy exertion.

2.19.4              Literature Review

2.19.4.1  Iím thinking a literature review rather than an experiment simply because nobody I know would raise their hand to volunteer to have the sensory fibers of their phrenic nerve cut. I am quite sure no one would volunteer his or her pet hamster, dog, or cat for this experiment either. So a review of the scientific literature is in order to determine the aerobic capacity of people or animals that have a damaged phrenic sensory nerve.

2.19.5              Grayís Anatomy and other references

2.19.5.1  Discussion

2.19.5.1.1         Cervical Nerves
2.19.5.1.1.1           http://www.bartleby.com/107/210.html
2.19.5.1.2         Brachial Plexus
2.19.5.1.2.1           http://www.bartleby.com/107/210.html#i807
2.19.5.1.3         Diaphragm
2.19.5.1.3.1           http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus391.html
2.19.5.1.3.2           Diaphragm

2.19.5.2  Illustrations

2.19.5.2.1         Thoracic Cavity (or chest cavity)
2.19.5.2.1.1           http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus806.html
2.19.5.2.2         Cervical Plexus
2.19.5.2.2.1           http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus804.html
2.19.5.2.3         Brachial Plexus
2.19.5.2.3.1           http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus807.html
2.19.5.2.4         Vagus Nerve
2.19.5.2.4.1           http://www.bartleby.com/107/205.html
2.19.5.2.5         Sympathetic Nervous System
2.19.5.2.5.1           http://www.bartleby.com/107/214.html
2.19.5.2.6         Diaphragm
2.19.5.2.6.1           http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus391.html

2.19.6              Number

2.19.6.1  32.05

2.19.7              Reference

2.19.7.1  19

2.19.8              Illustration

2.19.8.1  19

2.1  RECTUS CAPITIS LATERALIS N.

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2.1.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.1.1.1     .

2.1.2  NUMBER

2.1.2.1     35

2.1.3  REFERENCE

2.1.3.1      

2.1.4  ROOTS

2.1.4.1      

2.1.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

2.1.4.3     VENTRAL

2.1.5  DIVISION

2.1.5.1     Dorsal Ventral

2.1.5.2      

2.1.6  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.1.6.1      

2.1.6.1.1 

2.1.6.2      

2.1.6.2.1  .

2.1.7  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.1.7.1      

2.1.7.1.1   

2.1.8  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.1.8.1      

2.1.8.2      

2.1.8.3      

2.1.8.4      

2.1.8.5      

2.1.8.6      

2.2  RECTUS CAPITIS ANTERIOR N.

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2.2.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.2.1.1     .

2.2.2  NUMBER

2.2.2.1     35

2.2.3  REFERENCE

2.2.3.1      

2.2.4  ROOTS

2.2.4.1      

2.2.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

2.2.4.3     VENTRAL

2.2.5  DIVISION

2.2.5.1     Dorsal Ventral

2.2.5.2      

2.2.6  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.2.6.1      

2.2.6.1.1 

2.2.6.2      

2.2.6.2.1  .

2.2.7  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.2.7.1      

2.2.7.1.1   

2.2.8  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.2.8.1      

2.2.8.2      

2.2.8.3      

2.2.8.4      

2.2.8.5      

2.2.8.6      

2.3  LONGUS CAPITIS N

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2.3.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.3.1.1     .

2.3.2  NUMBER

2.3.2.1     35

2.3.3  REFERENCE

2.3.3.1      

2.3.4  ROOTS

2.3.4.1      

2.3.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

2.3.4.3     VENTRAL

2.3.5  DIVISION

2.3.5.1     Dorsal Ventral

2.3.5.2      

2.3.6  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.3.6.1      

2.3.6.1.1 

2.3.6.2      

2.3.6.2.1  .

2.3.7  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.3.7.1      

2.3.7.1.1   

2.3.8  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.3.8.1      

2.3.8.2      

2.3.8.3      

2.3.8.4      

2.3.8.5      

2.3.8.6      

2.4  LONGUS COLI N.

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2.4.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.4.1.1     .

2.4.2  NUMBER

2.4.2.1     35

2.4.3  REFERENCE

2.4.3.1      

2.4.4  ROOTS

2.4.4.1      

2.4.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

2.4.4.3     VENTRAL

2.4.5  DIVISION

2.4.5.1     Dorsal Ventral

2.4.5.2      

2.4.6  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.4.6.1      

2.4.6.1.1 

2.4.6.2      

2.4.6.2.1  .

2.4.7  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.4.7.1      

2.4.7.1.1   

2.4.8  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.4.8.1      

2.4.8.2      

2.4.8.3      

2.4.8.4      

2.4.8.5      

2.4.8.6      

2.5  STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID N.

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2.5.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.5.1.1     .

2.5.2  NUMBER

2.5.2.1     35

2.5.3  REFERENCE

2.5.3.1      

2.5.4  ROOTS

2.5.4.1      

2.5.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

2.5.4.3     VENTRAL

2.5.5  DIVISION

2.5.5.1     Dorsal Ventral

2.5.5.2      

2.5.6  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.5.6.1      

2.5.6.1.1 

2.5.6.2      

2.5.6.2.1  .

2.5.7  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.5.7.1      

2.5.7.1.1   

2.5.8  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.5.8.1      

2.5.8.2      

2.5.8.3      

2.5.8.4      

2.5.8.5      

2.5.8.6      

2.6  TRAPEZIUS N.

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2.6.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.6.1.1     .

2.6.2  NUMBER

2.6.2.1     35

2.6.3  REFERENCE

2.6.3.1      

2.6.4  ROOTS

2.6.4.1      

2.6.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

2.6.4.3     VENTRAL

2.6.5  DIVISION

2.6.5.1     Dorsal Ventral

2.6.5.2      

2.6.6  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.6.6.1      

2.6.6.1.1 

2.6.6.2      

2.6.6.2.1  .

2.6.7  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.6.7.1      

2.6.7.1.1   

2.6.8  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.6.8.1      

2.6.8.2      

2.6.8.3      

2.6.8.4      

2.6.8.5      

2.6.8.6      

2.7  LEVATOR SCAPULAE N.

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2.7.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.7.1.1     .

2.7.2  NUMBER

2.7.2.1     35

2.7.3  REFERENCE

2.7.3.1      

2.7.4  ROOTS

2.7.4.1      

2.7.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

2.7.4.3     VENTRAL

2.7.5  DIVISION

2.7.5.1     Dorsal Ventral

2.7.5.2      

2.7.6  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.7.6.1      

2.7.6.1.1 

2.7.6.2      

2.7.6.2.1  .

2.7.7  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.7.7.1      

2.7.7.1.1   

2.7.8  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.7.8.1      

2.7.8.2      

2.7.8.3      

2.7.8.4      

2.7.8.5      

2.7.8.6      

2.8  SCALENUS NERVES.

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2.8.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.8.1.1     .

2.8.2  NUMBER

2.8.2.1     35

2.8.3  REFERENCE

2.8.3.1      

2.8.4  ROOTS

2.8.4.1      

2.8.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

2.8.4.3     VENTRAL

2.8.5  DIVISION

2.8.5.1     Dorsal Ventral

2.8.5.2      

2.8.6  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.8.6.1      

2.8.6.1.1 

2.8.6.2      

2.8.6.2.1  .

2.8.7  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.8.7.1      

2.8.7.1.1   

2.8.8  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.8.8.1      

2.8.8.2      

2.8.8.3      

2.8.8.4      

2.8.8.5      

2.8.8.6      

2.9  BRACHIAL PLEXUS

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2.9.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.9.1.1     .

2.9.2  NUMBER

2.9.2.1     35

2.9.3  REFERENCE

2.9.3.1      

2.9.4  ROOTS

2.9.4.1      

2.9.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

2.9.4.3     VENTRAL

2.9.5  DIVISION

2.9.5.1     Dorsal Ventral

2.9.5.2      

2.9.6  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.9.6.1      

2.9.6.1.1 

2.9.6.2      

2.9.6.2.1  .

2.9.7  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.9.7.1      

2.9.7.1.1   

2.9.8  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.9.8.1      

2.9.8.2      

2.9.8.3      

2.9.8.4      

2.9.8.5      

2.9.8.6      

2.10 DORSAL SCAPULAR N.

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2.10.1              DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.10.1.1  .

2.10.2              NUMBER

2.10.2.1  35

2.10.3              REFERENCE

2.10.3.1   

2.10.4              ROOTS

2.10.4.1   

2.10.4.2  Lumbar Plexus

2.10.4.3  VENTRAL

2.10.5              DIVISION

2.10.5.1  Dorsal Ventral

2.10.5.2   

2.10.6              CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.10.6.1   

2.10.6.1.1        

2.10.6.2   

2.10.6.2.1         .

2.10.7              ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.10.7.1   

2.10.7.1.1          

2.10.8              MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.10.8.1   

2.10.8.2   

2.10.8.3   

2.10.8.4   

2.10.8.5   

2.10.8.6   

2.11 LONG THORACIC NERVE

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2.11.1              DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.11.1.1  .

2.11.2              NUMBER

2.11.2.1  35

2.11.3              REFERENCE

2.11.3.1   

2.11.4              ROOTS

2.11.4.1   

2.11.4.2  Lumbar Plexus

2.11.4.3  VENTRAL

2.11.5              DIVISION

2.11.5.1  Dorsal Ventral

2.11.5.2   

2.11.6              CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.11.6.1   

2.11.6.1.1        

2.11.6.2   

2.11.6.2.1         .

2.11.7              ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.11.7.1   

2.11.7.1.1          

2.11.8              MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.11.8.1   

2.11.8.2   

2.11.8.3   

2.11.8.4   

2.11.8.5   

2.11.8.6   

2.12 SUBCLAVIUS N.

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2.12.1              DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.12.1.1  .

2.12.2              NUMBER

2.12.2.1  35

2.12.3              REFERENCE

2.12.3.1   

2.12.4              ROOTS

2.12.4.1   

2.12.4.2  Lumbar Plexus

2.12.4.3  VENTRAL

2.12.5              DIVISION

2.12.5.1  Dorsal Ventral

2.12.5.2   

2.12.6              CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.12.6.1   

2.12.6.1.1        

2.12.6.2   

2.12.6.2.1         .

2.12.7              ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.12.7.1   

2.12.7.1.1          

2.12.8              MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.12.8.1   

2.12.8.2   

2.12.8.3   

2.12.8.4   

2.12.8.5   

2.12.8.6   

2.13 UPPER SUBSCAPULAR N.

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2.13.1              DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.13.1.1  .

2.13.2              NUMBER

2.13.2.1  35

2.13.3              REFERENCE

2.13.3.1   

2.13.4              ROOTS

2.13.4.1   

2.13.4.2  Lumbar Plexus

2.13.4.3  VENTRAL

2.13.5              DIVISION

2.13.5.1  Dorsal Ventral

2.13.5.2   

2.13.6              CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.13.6.1   

2.13.6.1.1        

2.13.6.2   

2.13.6.2.1         .

2.13.7              ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.13.7.1   

2.13.7.1.1          

2.13.8              MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.13.8.1   

2.13.8.2   

2.13.8.3   

2.13.8.4   

2.13.8.5   

2.13.8.6   

2.14 THORACODORSAL N. (MIDDLE SUBSCAPULAR N.)

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2.14.1              DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.14.1.1  .

2.14.2              NUMBER

2.14.2.1  35

2.14.3              REFERENCE

2.14.3.1   

2.14.4              ROOTS

2.14.4.1   

2.14.4.2  Lumbar Plexus

2.14.4.3  VENTRAL

2.14.5              DIVISION

2.14.5.1  Dorsal Ventral

2.14.5.2   

2.14.6              CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.14.6.1   

2.14.6.1.1        

2.14.6.2   

2.14.6.2.1         .

2.14.7              ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.14.7.1   

2.14.7.1.1          

2.14.8              MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.14.8.1   

2.14.8.2   

2.14.8.3   

2.14.8.4   

2.14.8.5   

2.14.8.6   

2.15 LOWER SUBSCAPULAR N.

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2.15.1              DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.15.1.1  .

2.15.2              NUMBER

2.15.2.1  35

2.15.3              REFERENCE

2.15.3.1   

2.15.4              ROOTS

2.15.4.1   

2.15.4.2  Lumbar Plexus

2.15.4.3  VENTRAL

2.15.5              DIVISION

2.15.5.1  Dorsal Ventral

2.15.5.2   

2.15.6              CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.15.6.1   

2.15.6.1.1        

2.15.6.2   

2.15.6.2.1         .

2.15.7              ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.15.7.1   

2.15.7.1.1          

2.15.8              MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.15.8.1   

2.15.8.2   

2.15.8.3   

2.15.8.4   

2.15.8.5   

2.15.8.6   

1    Arms

1.1  SUPRACLAVICULAR

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1.1.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

1.1.1.1     .

1.1.2  NUMBER

1.1.2.1     35

1.1.3  REFERENCE

1.1.3.1      

1.1.4  ROOTS

1.1.4.1      

1.1.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

1.1.4.3     VENTRAL

1.1.5  DIVISION

1.1.5.1     Dorsal Ventral

1.1.5.2      

1.1.6  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

1.1.6.1      

1.1.6.1.1 

1.1.6.2      

1.1.6.2.1  .

1.1.7  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

1.1.7.1      

1.1.7.1.1   

1.1.8  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

1.1.8.1      

1.1.8.2      

1.1.8.3      

1.1.8.4      

1.1.8.5      

1.1.8.6      

1.2  AXILLARY (U LAT CUT N)

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1.2.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

1.2.1.1     .

1.2.2  NUMBER

1.2.2.1     35

1.2.3  REFERENCE

1.2.3.1      

1.2.4  ROOTS

1.2.4.1      

1.2.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

1.2.4.3     VENTRAL

1.2.5  DIVISION

1.2.5.1     Dorsal Ventral

1.2.5.2      

1.2.6  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

1.2.6.1      

1.2.6.1.1 

1.2.6.2      

1.2.6.2.1  .

1.2.7  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

1.2.7.1      

1.2.7.1.1   

1.2.8  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

1.2.8.1      

1.2.8.2      

1.2.8.3      

1.2.8.4      

1.2.8.5      

1.2.8.6      

1.3  2ND THOR INTERCSL N

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1.3.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

1.3.1.1     .

1.3.2  NUMBER

1.3.2.1     35

1.3.3  REFERENCE

1.3.3.1      

1.3.4  ROOTS

1.3.4.1      

1.3.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

1.3.4.3     VENTRAL

1.3.5  DIVISION

1.3.5.1     Dorsal Ventral

1.3.5.2      

1.3.6  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

1.3.6.1      

1.3.6.1.1 

1.3.6.2      

1.3.6.2.1  .

1.3.7  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

1.3.7.1      

1.3.7.1.1   

1.3.8  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

1.3.8.1      

1.3.8.2      

1.3.8.3      

1.3.8.4      

1.3.8.5      

1.3.8.6      

1.4  MEDIAL BRACHIAL CUT N.(FLASH;MEDIAL CUT)(GRAY;LESSER INTERNAL CUT,N. OF WRISBERG)

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1.4.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

1.4.1.1     .

1.4.2  NUMBER

1.4.2.1     35

1.4.3  REFERENCE

1.4.3.1      

1.4.4  ROOTS

1.4.4.1      

1.4.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

1.4.4.3     VENTRAL

1.4.5  DIVISION

1.4.5.1     Dorsal Ventral

1.4.5.2      

1.4.6  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

1.4.6.1      

1.4.6.1.1 

1.4.6.2      

1.4.6.2.1  .

1.4.7  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

1.4.7.1      

1.4.7.1.1   

1.4.8  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

1.4.8.1      

1.4.8.2      

1.4.8.3      

1.4.8.4      

1.4.8.5      

1.4.8.6      

1.5  RADIAL

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1.5.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

1.5.1.1     .

1.5.2  NUMBER

1.5.2.1     35

1.5.3  REFERENCE

1.5.3.1      

1.5.4  ROOTS

1.5.4.1      

1.5.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

1.5.4.3     VENTRAL

1.5.5  DIVISION

1.5.5.1     Dorsal Ventral

1.5.5.2      

1.5.6  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

1.5.6.1      

1.5.6.1.1 

1.5.6.2      

1.5.6.2.1  .

1.5.7  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

1.5.7.1      

1.5.7.1.1   

1.5.8  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

1.5.8.1      

1.5.8.2      

1.5.8.3      

1.5.8.4      

1.5.8.5      

1.5.8.6      

1.6  MUSCULOCUTANEOUS

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1.6.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

1.6.1.1     .

1.6.2  NUMBER

1.6.2.1     35

1.6.3  REFERENCE

1.6.3.1      

1.6.4  ROOTS

1.6.4.1      

1.6.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

1.6.4.3     VENTRAL

1.6.5  DIVISION

1.6.5.1     Dorsal Ventral

1.6.5.2      

1.6.6  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

1.6.6.1      

1.6.6.1.1 

1.6.6.2      

1.6.6.2.1  .

1.6.7  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

1.6.7.1      

1.6.7.1.1   

1.6.8  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

1.6.8.1      

1.6.8.2      

1.6.8.3      

1.6.8.4      

1.6.8.5      

1.6.8.6      

1.7  MED ANTEBRACHIAL CUT N.(FLASH;MEDIALCUTANEOUS N. OF FOREARM),(GRAY; INTERNAL CUT N.)

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1.7.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

1.7.1.1     .

1.7.2  NUMBER

1.7.2.1     35

1.7.3  REFERENCE

1.7.3.1      

1.7.4  ROOTS

1.7.4.1      

1.7.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

1.7.4.3     VENTRAL

1.7.5  DIVISION

1.7.5.1     Dorsal Ventral

1.7.5.2      

1.7.6  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

1.7.6.1      

1.7.6.1.1 

1.7.6.2      

1.7.6.2.1  .

1.7.7  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

1.7.7.1      

1.7.7.1.1   

1.7.8  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

1.7.8.1      

1.7.8.2      

1.7.8.3      

1.7.8.4      

1.7.8.5      

1.7.8.6      

2    Hands

2.1  ULNAR

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2.1.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.1.1.1     .

2.1.2  NUMBER

2.1.2.1     35

2.1.3  REFERENCE

2.1.3.1      

2.1.4  ROOTS

2.1.4.1      

2.1.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

2.1.4.3     VENTRAL

2.1.5  DIVISION

2.1.5.1     Dorsal Ventral

2.1.5.2      

2.1.6  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.1.6.1      

2.1.6.1.1 

2.1.6.2      

2.1.6.2.1  .

2.1.7  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.1.7.1      

2.1.7.1.1   

2.1.8  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.1.8.1      

2.1.8.2      

2.1.8.3      

2.1.8.4      

2.1.8.5      

2.1.8.6      

2.2  RADIAL

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2.2.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.2.1.1     .

2.2.2  NUMBER

2.2.2.1     35

2.2.3  REFERENCE

2.2.3.1      

2.2.4  ROOTS

2.2.4.1      

2.2.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

2.2.4.3     VENTRAL

2.2.5  DIVISION

2.2.5.1     Dorsal Ventral

2.2.5.2      

2.2.6  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.2.6.1      

2.2.6.1.1 

2.2.6.2      

2.2.6.2.1  .

2.2.7  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.2.7.1      

2.2.7.1.1   

2.2.8  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.2.8.1      

2.2.8.2      

2.2.8.3      

2.2.8.4      

2.2.8.5      

2.2.8.6      

2.3  MEDIAN NERVE

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2.3.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

2.3.1.1     .

2.3.2  NUMBER

2.3.2.1     35

2.3.3  REFERENCE

2.3.3.1      

2.3.4  ROOTS

2.3.4.1      

2.3.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

2.3.4.3     VENTRAL

2.3.5  DIVISION

2.3.5.1     Dorsal Ventral

2.3.5.2      

2.3.6  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

2.3.6.1      

2.3.6.1.1 

2.3.6.2      

2.3.6.2.1  .

2.3.7  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

2.3.7.1      

2.3.7.1.1   

2.3.8  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

2.3.8.1      

2.3.8.2      

2.3.8.3      

2.3.8.4      

2.3.8.5      

2.3.8.6      

2.4   

2.5   

3    HIP AND LEGS

3.1  12TH THORACIC INTERCOSTAL (SUB COSTAL) 35.01

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3.1.1  DESCRIPTION # 1: PATH, FUNCTION-LESIONS

3.1.1.1     A FOCAL LESION TO THE SUBCOSTAL NERVE WOULD NOT SIGNIFICANTLY WEAKEN THE QUADRATUS LUMBORUM BUT WOULD PARALYZE THE PYRAMIDALIS AND WEAKEN THE LOWER ABDOMINAL MUSCLES PRESENTING "BEAVOR'S SIGN". THIS COULD ALSO PRESENT A BULGING OF THE LOWER ABDOMEN.

3.1.2  DESCRIPTION # 2: CUTANEOUS AREA, ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

3.1.2.1     T12 IS OFTEN CONSIDERED PART OF THE LUMBAR PLEXUS.

3.1.3  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES (12TH THOR)

3.1.3.1     LATERAL CUTANEOUS (CUT B) 35.011

3.1.3.1.1  ANTEROLATERAL GLUTEAL SKIN SOME FILAMENTS REACHING THE SKIN OVER THE GREATER TROCHANTER

3.1.3.2     ANTERIOR CUTANEOUS(CUT BR) 35.012

3.1.3.2.1  SKIN OF SUPRAPUBIC AREA.

3.1.4  Articular Branches

3.1.4.1     ARTICULAR(12 THOR)

3.1.4.1.1  12TH COSTOVERTEBRAL(ART)

3.1.5  ROOTS

3.1.5.1     T12

3.1.5.2     SPINAL NERVE

3.1.5.3     VENTRAL

3.1.6  MUSCULAR BRANCHES (12TH THORACIC)

3.1.6.1     QUADRATUS LUMBORUMT12-L3,(L4)

3.1.6.2     TRANSVERSE ABDOMINAL T7-L1

3.1.6.3     INTERNAL OBLIQUE ABDOMINAL T7-L1

3.1.6.4     EXTERNAL OBLIQUE ABDOMINAL T5-T12

3.1.6.4.1  T12 LATERAL CUTANEOUS BRANCH SUPPLIES THE LOWER SLIP

3.1.6.5     RECTUS ABDOMINAL (T5),T6-T12

3.1.6.6     PYRAMIDALIS T12

3.1.7  NUMBER

3.1.7.1     35.01

3.1.8  REFERANCE

3.1.8.1     50

3.2  Lumbar Plexus (Spinal Segments & Nerves) (61)

3.2.1  Spinal Segments

3.2.1.1    

3.2.2  Nerves

3.2.2.1    

3.2.3  Reference

3.2.3.1     61

3.3  Lumbar Plexus (62)

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3.3.1  Spinal Roots

3.3.1.1     L 1, L2, L3, L4 ventral rami with a ramus from T12

3.3.1.1.1  They descend laterally into the psoas major. The first three and most of the fourth form the lumbar plexus. The rest of L4 splits to join L5 forming the Lumbosacral trunk

3.3.2  Named Branches

3.3.2.1     A=Muscular branches / T12, L 1-L4.

3.3.2.2     B=Iliohypogastric nerve / T12, L 1.

3.3.2.3     C=llio-inguinal nerve / L 1.

3.3.2.4     D=Genitofemoral nerve / L 1, L2.

3.3.3  From Ventral Divisions

3.3.3.1     E=Obturator nerve / L2-L4.

3.3.3.2     F=Accessory Obturator nerve / L3, L4

3.3.4  From Dorsal Divisions

3.3.4.1     G=Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve / L4, L5.

3.3.4.2     H=Femoral nerve / L2-L4.

3.3.4.3     I=Lumbosacral trunk to sacral plexus / L4, L5.

3.3.5  Cutaneous Branches

3.3.5.1     The areas of cutaneous innervation are designated by the letters as described above

3.3.6  Lesions

3.3.6.1     Injury to the lumbar roots or the cauda equina related to L 1, L2, L3 can result from neurofibromas, meningiomas or other malignant disease. Disc herniations, although less common, can produce focal lesions of the lumbar roots. Injury to L1 results in weakness of abdominal musculature and paresthesias to the skin region of the greater trochanter and upper groin. Injury to L2 produces weak hip flexion, due to deficits in psoas major and iliacus, and paresthesias to skin of anterior thigh. Injury to L3 results in weak adduction of leg and reduced knee jerk reflex and paresthesias to skin of anterior thigh (femoral nerve), anteromedial knee, leg and foot (saphenous nerve). Injury to L4 is the most common lesion of the lumbar plexus and typically results from a herniated intervertebral disc between L4 and L5 or degenerative arthritis (spondylosis) in the spine. Deficits resemble those of L3 except that cutaneous fibers for the anterior thigh (via the femoral nerve) survive. Deficits to tibialis anterior and posterior will result in a "foot drop" via L4 lumbosacral trunk deficit.

3.3.7  Path Description

3.3.7.1     The lumbar plexus is formed by the loops of communication between the anterior divisions of the first three and the greater part of the fourth lumbar nerves; the first lumbar often receives a branch from the last thoracic nerve. It is situated in the posterior part of the Psoas major, in front of the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebra. The mode in which the plexus is arranged varies in different subjects. It differs from the brachial plexus in not forming an intricate interlacement, but the several nerves of distribution arise from one or more of the spinal nerves, in the following manner: the first lumbar nerve, frequently supplemented by a twig from the last thoracic, splits into an upper and lower branch; the upper and larger branch divides into the Iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves; the lower and smaller branch unites with a branch of the second lumbar to form the Genitofemoral nerve. The remainder of the second nerve, and the third and fourth nerves, divide into ventral and dorsal divisions. The ventral division of the second unites with the ventral divisions of the third and fourth nerves to form the Obturator nerve. The dorsal divisions of the second and third nerves divide into two branches, a smaller branch from each uniting to form the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, and a larger branch from each joining with the dorsal division of the fourth nerve to form the femoral nerve. The accessory Obturator, when it exists, is formed by the union of two small branches given off from the third and fourth nerves.

3.3.8  Grayís Anatomy

3.3.8.1     http://www.bartleby.com/107/212.html

3.3.8.2     Illustrations

3.3.8.2.1  http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus822.html
3.3.8.2.2  http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus823.html
3.3.8.2.3  http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus824.html

3.3.9  Number

3.3.9.1      

3.3.10              Reference

3.3.10.1  62

3.3.11              Illustration

3.3.11.1 

3.4  Lumbar Plexus (Muscular Branches and Relationships) (63)

3.4.1  Spinal Roots

3.4.1.1     T12, L 1, L2, L3, L4 Ventral rami

3.4.2  Named Branches

3.4.2.1     None

3.4.3  Muscular Branches

3.4.3.1     A=Quadratus lumborum / T12, L 1-L3.

3.4.3.2     B=Psoas minor / L 1.

3.4.3.3     C=Psoas major / L 1-L3

3.4.4  Articular Branches

3.4.4.1     None

3.4.5  Cutaneous Branches

3.4.5.1     None

3.4.6  Lumbar Plexus Relations

3.4.6.1     The whole lumbar plexus pierces the psoas major, divides into branches exiting from the:

3.4.6.2     Lateral Border of Psoas

3.4.6.2.1  D=Iliohypogastric nerve.
3.4.6.2.2  E=llio-inguinal nerve.
3.4.6.2.3  F=Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve.
3.4.6.2.4  G=Femoral nerve.

3.4.6.3     Anterolateral Border of Psoas

3.4.6.3.1  H=Genitofemoral nerve

3.4.6.4     Anteromedial Border of Psoas

3.4.6.4.1  I=Obturator nerve.
3.4.6.4.2  J=Accessory Obturator nerve (if present).
3.4.6.4.3  K=Upper root of lumbosacral trunk

3.4.7  Lesions

3.4.7.1     Root lesions to L2, L3 can weaken the psoas major, however, L2 provides the greatest affect. Presents as weakness or inability to flex the hip. Paresthesia or loss of sensation to the anterior proximal thigh (femoral nerve L2) could further specify the root damage as L2 rather than L1.

3.4.8  Grayís Anatomy

3.4.8.1     http://www.bartleby.com/107/212.html

3.4.9  Number

3.4.9.1      

3.4.10              Reference

3.4.10.1  63

3.4.11              Illustration

3.4.11.1 

3.5  Nerves from Ventral Rami of Lumbar Plexus (64)

3.5.1  Illustration A

3.5.1.1    

3.5.2  Illustration B

3.5.2.1    

3.5.3  Number

3.5.3.1      

3.5.4  Reference

3.5.4.1     64

3.6  Iliohypogastric Nerve (65) (Blank)

3.6.1  Spinal Roots

3.6.1.1      

3.6.2  Named Branches

3.6.2.1      

3.6.3  Muscular Branches

3.6.3.1      

3.6.4  Articular Branches

3.6.4.1      

3.6.5  Cutaneous Branches

3.6.5.1      

3.6.6  Lesions

3.6.6.1      

3.6.7  Grayís Anatomy

3.6.7.1     http://www.bartleby.com/107/212.html

3.6.8  Number

3.6.8.1      

3.6.9  Reference

3.6.9.1      

3.6.10              Illustration

3.6.10.1   

3.7  ILLIOHYPOGASTRIC (65)

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3.7.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

3.7.1.1     . EXITS THROUGH THE LATERAL BORDER OF THE PSOAS MAJOR. INJURY TO THIS NERVE CAN RESULT FROM AN INCISION FOR AN APPENDECTOMY. PRESENTS AS A WEAKNESS IN THE ABDOMINAL AREA OF INQUINAL CANL AND PARESTHESIA OF LOSS OF SENSATION TO THE SKIN DESCRIBED IN THE CUTANEOUS SECTION FOR THIS NERVE. THE ABDONIMAL WEKNESS MAY RESULT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DIRECT INQUINAL HERNIA.

3.7.2  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

3.7.2.1     LATERAL CUTANEOUS

3.7.2.1.1  L GLUTEAL SKIN

3.7.2.2     ANTERIOR CUTANEOUS

3.7.2.2.1  . SUPRAPUBIC SKIN (HYPOGASTRIC REGION)

3.7.3  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

3.7.3.1     NONE

3.7.3.1.1   

3.7.4  ROOTS

3.7.4.1     T12-L1

3.7.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

3.7.4.3     VENTRAL

3.7.5  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

3.7.5.1     TRANSVERSE ABDOMINIS

3.7.5.1.1  SUPPLIED BY THE VENTRAL RAMI T7-T12 AND THE ILLIOINGUINAL NERVES.

3.7.5.2     INTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE

3.7.5.2.1  SUPPLIED BY THE VENTRAL RAMI T7-T12 AND THE ILLIOINGUINAL NERVES.

3.7.6  NUMBER

3.7.6.1     . 35 .02

3.7.7  REFERENCE

3.7.7.1     66

3.8  Ilio-Inquinal Nerve (66) (Blank)

3.8.1  Spinal Roots

3.8.1.1      

3.8.2  Named Branches

3.8.2.1      

3.8.3  Muscular Branches

3.8.3.1      

3.8.4  Articular Branches

3.8.4.1      

3.8.5  Cutaneous Branches

3.8.5.1      

3.8.6  Lesions

3.8.6.1      

3.8.7  Grayís Anatomy

3.8.7.1     http://www.bartleby.com/107/212.html

3.8.8  Number

3.8.8.1      

3.8.9  Reference

3.8.9.1      

3.8.10              Illustration

3.8.10.1   

3.9  ILLIO-INGUINAL (66)

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3.9.1  DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

3.9.1.1     . EXITS THROUGH THE LATERAL BORDER OF THE PSOAS MAJOR. INJURY TO THIS NERVE CAN RESULT BY AN INCISION FOR AN APPENDECTOMY AND HERNIORRHAPHIES, DURNING PLANNENSTIEL'S (HORIZONTAL SUPRAPUBIC) INCISIONS, OR NEPHRECTOMIES. SOMETIMES NORMAL PREGNACY AND DELIVERY CAN STRETCH THE NERVE. THE PATIENT USUALLY COMPLAINS OF PARESTHESIA OR LOSS OF S4ENSATION TO THE SKIN DECRIBED IN THE CUTANEOUS XERCTION FOR THIS NERVE. LIOHYPOGASTRIC, ILIO-INGUINAL AND GENITOFEMORAL NERVES IN AND OF THEMSELVES MAY NOT BE AS IMPORTANT AS PARESTHESIAS AND PAIN IN DISTRIBUTION. THIS BEING AN INDICATOR IDENTIFYING (LOCALIZING) SPINAL NERVE LESIONS. ALSO PAIN FROM DISEASE OF THE URETER AND RENAL PELVIS MAY REFER HERE.

3.9.2  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

3.9.2.1     GROIN 35.031

3.9.2.1.1  PROXIMOMEDIAL SKIN OF THE THIGH(GROIN).

3.9.2.2     BASE O PENIS/MONS PUBIS 35.032

3.9.2.2.1  . IN MALES THE SKIN OVER THE PENILE ROOT AND UPPER PART OF SCROTUM. IN FEMALES, THE SKIN COVERING THE MONS PUBIS AND THE ADJOINING LABIUM MARORUS.

3.9.3  ARTICULAR BRANCHES

3.9.3.1     NONE

3.9.4  ROOTS

3.9.4.1     L1

3.9.4.2     Lumbar Plexus

3.9.4.3     VENTRAL

3.9.5  MUSCULAR BRANCHES

3.9.5.1     TRANSVERSE ABDOMINIS

3.9.5.1.1  THIS NERVE IS SUPPLIED BY THE VENTRAL RAMI T7-T12 AND THE ILLIOHYPOGASTRIC NERVES.

3.9.5.2     INTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE

3.9.5.2.1  THIS NERVE IS SUPPLIED BY THE VENTRAL RAMI T7-T12 AND THE ILLIOHYPOGASTRIC NERVES.

3.9.6  NUMBER

3.9.6.1     . 35 .03

3.9.7  REFERENCE

3.9.7.1     67

3.10 Genitofemoral Nerve (67) (Blank)

3.10.1              Spinal Roots

3.10.1.1   

3.10.2              Named Branches

3.10.2.1   

3.10.3              Muscular Branches

3.10.3.1   

3.10.4              Articular Branches

3.10.4.1   

3.10.5              Cutaneous Branches

3.10.5.1   

3.10.6              Lesions

3.10.6.1   

3.10.7              Grayís Anatomy

3.10.7.1  http://www.bartleby.com/107/212.html

3.10.8              Number

3.10.8.1   

3.10.9              Reference

3.10.9.1   

3.10.10           Illustration

3.10.10.1                

3.11 GENITAL FEMORAL (67)

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3.11.1              DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

3.11.1.1  . SCARRING AND ADHESIONS FROM APPENDECTOMIES CAN CONSTRICT THE NERVE AND RESULT IN PARALYSIS OF THE CREMASTER MUSCLE. CREMASTERIC ACTIONS ARE NOT USUALLY VOLUNTARY, RAISING TESTES, ESSENTIAL TO TESTICULAR THERMOREGULATION. STIMULATION OF MEDIAL FEMORAL SKIN EVODES A REFLEX CONTRACTION; THIS WOULD BE LOST. HOWEVER, THIS IS NOT CONSIDERED A RELIABLETEST. PRESENTS AS A PARESTHESIA OR LOSS OF SENSATION TO THE SKIN IN THE CUTANEOUS DESCRIPTION FOR THIS NERVE.

3.11.2              NUMBER

3.11.2.1  35.04

3.11.3              REFERENCE

3.11.3.1  68

3.11.4              ROOTS

3.11.4.1  L1-L2

3.11.4.2  Lumbar Plexus

3.11.4.3  VENTRAL

3.11.5              CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

3.11.5.1  GENITAL BR 35.041

3.11.5.1.1         SUPPLIES THE SCROTAL SKIN IN MALES AND IN FEMALES THE SKIN OF THE MONS PUBIS, LABIUM MAJORUS AND PARTS OF VULVA INCLUDING THE CLITORIS, LABIA MINOR VVAGINA GREATER VESTIBULE(BARTHOLIN) GLANDS, AND BULB OF VESTIBULA.

3.11.5.2  FEMORAL BR 35.042

3.11.5.2.1         . SKIN OVER THE UPPER PART OF THE FEMORAL TRIANGLE.

3.11.6              ARTICULAR BRANCHES

3.11.6.1  NONE

3.11.7              MUSCULAR BRANCHES

3.11.7.1.1         CREMASTER

3.12 Nerves from Ventral Division of Ventral Rami Lumbar Plexus (68)

3.12.1              Illustration A

3.12.1.1 

3.12.2              Illustration B

3.12.2.1 

3.12.3              Number

3.12.3.1   

3.12.4              Reference

3.12.4.1  68

3.13 Obturator Nerve (69) (Blank)

3.13.1              Spinal Roots

3.13.1.1   

3.13.2              Named Branches

3.13.2.1   

3.13.3              Muscular Branches

3.13.3.1   

3.13.4              Articular Branches

3.13.4.1   

3.13.5              Cutaneous Branches

3.13.5.1   

3.13.6              Lesions

3.13.6.1   

3.13.7              Grayís Anatomy

3.13.7.1  http://www.bartleby.com/107/212.html

3.13.8              Number

3.13.8.1   

3.13.9              Reference

3.13.9.1   

3.13.10           Illustration

3.13.10.1                

3.14 OBTURATOR (69)

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3.14.1              DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

3.14.1.1  . L2-L4 VENTRAL DIVISION OF THE VENTRAL RAMI, EXITING THROUGH THE MEDIAL BORDER OF THE PSOAS MAJOR. BEFORE PASSING THROUGH THE OBTURATOR FORAMEN IT BIFURCATES INTO ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR DIVISIONS.

3.14.1.2  INJURY TO THIS NERVE IS RARE. IT IS VULNERABLE TO SURGICAL DAMAGE DURING PELVIC INTRUSION TO REMOVE MALIGNANT LYMPH NODES. PRESSURE FROM A GRAVID UTERUS AND DAMAGE FROM SEVERE LABOUR IS NOT UNCOMMON. IT MAY ALSO BE IRRITATED BY DISEASE OF AN OVARY.

3.14.1.3  PRESSENTS A WEAKNESS OR INABLIITY TO STABILIZE THE HIP. PARALYSIS OF ADDUCTORS AND OBTURATOR EXTERNUS WEAKEN BY ADDUCTION AND EXTERNAL ROTATION OF THE THIGH, MAKING CROSSING OF LEGS DIFFICULT. PARESTHESIA OR LOSS OF SENSATION TO THE SKIN AREAS DESCRIBED.

3.14.1.4  HIP JOINT DISEASE MAY CAUSE REFERRED PAIN TO THE MEDIAL SIDE OF THE THIGH. THE NERVE IS SOMETIMES SEVERED TO RELIEVE ADDUCTOR SPASM IN SPASTIC PARALYSIS, PARAPLEGIA OR MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. TO DIFFERENTIATE A FOCAL OBTURATOR NERVE LESION FROM LUMBAR ROOT LESION, TEST THE FEMORAL NERVE, WHICH IS ALSO DERIVES FROM L2-L4.

3.14.2              NUMBER

3.14.2.1  35.06

3.14.3              REFERENCE

3.14.3.1  85

3.14.4              ROOTS

3.14.4.1  S1-S2††††††† S2-S3

3.14.4.2  Lumbar Plexus

3.14.4.3  VENTRAL

3.14.5              DIVISION

3.14.5.1  Anterior Posterior

3.14.6              ANT DIVISION(OBTURATOR) 35.061

3.14.6.1  MUSCULAR BRANCHES (Ant Div)

3.14.6.1.1.1           ADDUCTOR LONGUS L2,L3,L4
3.14.6.1.1.2           GRACILLIS L2,L3
3.14.6.1.1.3           ADDUCTOR BREVISL3,L4

3.14.6.1.1.3.1SOMETIMES FROM POSTERIOR BRANCH OF OBTURATOR NERVE ALSO

3.14.6.1.1.4           PECTINEUSL2,L3

3.14.6.1.1.4.1THIS USUALLY RECEIVES FROM THE FEMORAL NERVE OR SOMETIMES THE ACCESSORY OBTURATOR NERVE WHEN PRESENT

3.14.6.1.1.5            

3.14.6.2  ARTICULAR BRANCHES(ANT DIV)

3.14.6.2.1         HIP

3.14.6.3  CUTANEOUS BRANCHES(ANT DIV)

3.14.6.3.1         TO THE SKIN ON THE MEDIAL SIDE OF THIGH.

3.14.7              POSTERIOR DIVISION(OBTURATOR)

3.14.7.1  MUSCULAR BRANCHES (Posterior Div)

3.14.7.1.1         OBTURATOR EXXTERNUS L3,L4
3.14.7.1.2         ABDUCTOR MAGNUS (PROXIMAL HORIZONTAL) L2,L3,L4
3.14.7.1.2.1           THE DISTAL (ISCHIOCONDYLAR) MUSCULAR FIBERS ARE SUPPLIED BY TIBIAL DIVISION OF SCIATIC NERVE.
3.14.7.1.3         ADDUCTOR BREVIS (SOMETIMES) L3,L4

3.14.7.2  ARTICULAR BRANCHES(POST DIV)

3.14.7.2.1         KNEE (SOMETIMES ABSENT)

3.15 Accessory Obturator Nerve (70) (Blank)

3.15.1              Spinal Roots

3.15.1.1   

3.15.2              Named Branches

3.15.2.1   

3.15.3              Muscular Branches

3.15.3.1   

3.15.4              Articular Branches

3.15.4.1   

3.15.5              Cutaneous Branches

3.15.5.1   

3.15.6              Lesions

3.15.6.1   

3.15.7              Grayís Anatomy

3.15.7.1  http://www.bartleby.com/107/212.html

3.15.8              Number

3.15.8.1   

3.15.9              Reference

3.15.9.1   

3.15.10           Illustration

3.15.10.1                

3.16 ACCESSORY OBTURATOR (70)

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3.16.1              DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

3.16.1.1  . EXITING THROUGH THE MEDIAL BOARDER OF PSOAS MAJOR. THIS NERVE IS PRESENT ABOUT 30% OF THE TIME WITH VARIATIONS.

3.16.1.2  IF PRESENT AND INJURED IT COULD MINIMALLY WEKEN ADDUCTION AND FLEXION OF THE HIP JOINT.

3.16.2              NUMBER

3.16.2.1  None

3.16.3              REFERENCE

3.16.3.1  71

3.16.4              ROOTS

3.16.4.1  L3, L4

3.16.4.2  Lumbar Plexus

3.16.4.3  VENTRAL

3.16.5              DIVISION

3.16.5.1  None

3.16.6              CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

3.16.6.1  None

3.16.7              ARTICULAR BRANCHES

3.16.7.1  None

3.16.7.1.1          

3.16.8              MUSCULAR BRANCHES

3.16.8.1  PECTINEUS

3.16.8.1.1         THE PECTINEUS MAY BE DIVIDED INTO ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR STRATA. THE ACCESSORY OBTURATOR OR OBTURATOR NERVES SUPPLYING THE POSTERIOR STRATUM; THE FEMORAL NERVE SUPPLIES THE ANTERIOR STRATUM.

3.16.8.2  ADDUCTOR LONGUS(SOMETIMES)

3.17 Lumbar Plexus (Nerves from Dorsal Divisions-Ventral Rami (71)

3.17.1              Illustration # A

3.17.1.1 

3.17.2              Illustration # B

3.17.2.1 

3.17.3              REFERENCE

3.17.3.1  71

3.18 Lateral Cutaneous Femoral Nerve (72) (Blank)

3.18.1              Spinal Roots

3.18.1.1   

3.18.2              Named Branches

3.18.2.1   

3.18.3              Muscular Branches

3.18.3.1   

3.18.4              Articular Branches

3.18.4.1   

3.18.5              Cutaneous Branches

3.18.5.1   

3.18.6              Lesions

3.18.6.1   

3.18.7              Grayís Anatomy

3.18.7.1  http://www.bartleby.com/107/212.html

3.18.8              Number

3.18.8.1   

3.18.9              Reference

3.18.9.1   

3.18.10           Illustration

3.18.10.1                

3.19 Femoral Nerve (Abdominal Branches) (73) (Blank)

3.19.1              Spinal Roots

3.19.1.1   

3.19.2              Named Branches

3.19.2.1   

3.19.3              Muscular Branches

3.19.3.1   

3.19.4              Articular Branches

3.19.4.1   

3.19.5              Cutaneous Branches

3.19.5.1   

3.19.6              Lesions

3.19.6.1   

3.19.7              Grayís Anatomy

3.19.7.1  http://www.bartleby.com/107/212.html

3.19.8              Number

3.19.8.1   

3.19.9              Reference

3.19.9.1   

3.19.10           Illustration

3.19.10.1                

3.20 Femoral Nerve (Anterior Division) (74) (Blank)

3.20.1              Spinal Roots

3.20.1.1   

3.20.2              Named Branches

3.20.2.1   

3.20.3              Muscular Branches

3.20.3.1   

3.20.4              Articular Branches

3.20.4.1   

3.20.5              Cutaneous Branches

3.20.5.1   

3.20.6              Lesions

3.20.6.1   

3.20.7              Grayís Anatomy

3.20.7.1  http://www.bartleby.com/107/212.html

3.20.8              Number

3.20.8.1   

3.20.9              Reference

3.20.9.1   

3.20.10           Illustration

3.20.10.1                

3.21 LAT FEM CUT (?)

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3.21.1              DESCRIPTION:PATH, FUNCTION, LESIONS, CUTANEOUS AREA, AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS

3.21.1.1  . L2-3 DORSAL DIVISION FROM THE VENTRAL RAMI EXITING THROUGH THE LATYERAL BAORDER OF PSOAS MAJOR.

3.21.1.2  PRESENTS AS PARESTHESIA OR LOSS OF SENSATION TO THE SKIN AREA DESCRIBED.

3.21.2              NUMBER

3.21.2.1  35.07

3.21.3              REFERENCE

3.21.3.1  73

3.21.4              ROOTS

3.21.4.1  L2, L3

3.21.4.2  Lumbar Plexus

3.21.4.3  VENTRAL

3.21.5              DIVISION

3.21.5.1  Dorsal

3.21.6              CUTANEOUS BRANCHES

3.21.6.1  ANTERIOR 35.071

3.21.6.1.1         SUPPLIES THE SKIN OF THE ANTEROLATERAL THIGH AS FAR DISTAL AS THE KNEE AND FORMS PART OF PATELLAR PLEXUS.

3.21.6.2  POSTERIOR 35.072

3.21.6.2.1         . SUPPLIES THE SKIN OF THE LATERAL THIGH FROM THE GREATER TROCHANTER TO ABOUT THE MID-THIGH: IT MAY ALSO SUPPLY SOME OF THE GLUTEAL SKIN.

3.21.7              ARTICULAR BRANCHES

3.21.7.1  None

3.21.8              MUSCULAR BRANCHES

3.21.8.1  None

3.22 FEMORAL NERVE (?)

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3.22.1              DESCRIPTION:† <