Muscle Discussions

Copyright Feb 2003 Ted Nissen.BEGIN1 END1

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1       ABDUCTOR DIGITI MINIMI (FOOT) 4

2       ABDUCTOR DIGITI MINIMI (HAND) 6

3       ABDUCTOR HALLUCIS. 9

4       ABDUCTOR POLLICIS BREVIS B4E4. 11

5       ABDUCTOR POLLICIS LONGUS B5E5. 13

6       ADDUCTOR BREVIS B6E6. 15

7       ADDUCTOR HALLUCIS B7E7. 17

8       ADDUCTOR LONGUS B8E8. 20

9       ADDUCTOR MAGNUS B9E9. 22

10         ADDUCTOR POLLICIS B10E10. 26

11         ANCONEUS B11E11. 28

12         BICEPS BRACHII B12E12. 30

13         BICEPS FEMORIS (Lateral Hamstring) B13E13. 34

14         BRACHIALIS B14E14. 38

15         BRACHIORADIALIS B15E15. 40

16         BUCCINATOR B16E16. 42

17         BULBOCAVERNOSUS (BULBOSPONGIOSUS) B17E17. 45

18         CILIARY MUSCLE B18E18. 47

19         COCCYGEUS (ISCHIOCOCCYGEUS) B19E19. 50

20         CORACOBRACHIALIS B20E20. 52

21         CORRUGATOR SUPERCILII B21E21. 54

22         CRICOARYTENOID LATERAL & POSTERIOR B22E22. 56

23         CRICOPHARYNGEUS B23E23. 59

24         CRICOTHYROID B24E24. 61

25         DELTOID ANTERIOR B25E25. 63

26         DELTOID MIDDLE. 66

27         DELTOID POSTERIOR. 67

28         DEPRESSOR ANGULI ORIS. 68

29         DEPRESSOR LABII INFERIORIS. 70

30         DEPRESSOR SEPTI 70

31         DIAPHRAGM. 71

32         DIGASTRIC ANT & POST BELLY (SUPRAHYOID) 73

33         DILATOR PUPILLAE. 75

34         DORSAL INTEROSSEI (FOOT) 76

35         DORSAL INTEROSSEI (HAND) 78

36         EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS BREVIS. 79

37         EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS LONGUS. 80

38         EXTENSOR CARPI ULNARIS. 81

39         EXTENSOR DIGITI MINIMI 82

40         EXTENSOR DIGITORUM. 83

41         EXTENSOR DIGITORUM BREVIS. 84

42         EXTENSOR DIGITORUM LONGUS. 88

43         EXTENSOR HALLUCIS BREVIS. 91

44         EXTENSOR HALLUCIS LONGUS. 95

45         EXTENSOR INDICIS. 98

46         EXTENSOR POLLICIS BREVIS. 98

47         EXTENSOR POLLICIS LONGUS. 99

48         EXTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE=ANT DIV. 100

49         EXTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE=LAT DIV. 101

50         EXTERNAL ANAL SPHINCTER. 102

51         EXTERNAL INTERCOSTALS. 103

52         EXTRINSIC AURICULAR MUSCLES. 104

53         FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS. 106

54         FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS. 106

55         FLEXOR DIGITI MINIMI BREVIS (FOOT) 107

56         FLEXOR DIGITI MINIMI BREVIS (HAND) 109

57         FLEXOR DIGITORUM BREVIS. 109

58         FLEXOR DIGITORUM LONGUS. 111

59         FLEXOR DIGITORUM PROFUNDUS. 114

60         FLEXOR DIGITORUM SUPERFICIALIS. 115

61         FLEXOR HALLUCIS BREVIS. 116

62         FLEXOR HALLUCIS LONGUS. 118

63         FLEXOR POLLICIS BREVIS. 121

64         FLEXOR POLLICIS LONGUS. 122

65         FRONTALIS (EPICRANIUS) 123

66         GASTROCNEMIUS. 124

67         GEMELLUS INFERIOR (1 of 6 Deep Lateral Rotators of Femur) 128

68         GEMELLUS SUPERIOR (1 of 6 Deep Lateral Rotators of Femur) 129

69         GENIOGLOSSUS. 130

70         GENIOHYOID (SUPRAHYOID) 131

71         GLUTEUS MAXIMUS. 132

72         GLUTEUS MEDIUS. 133

73         GLUTEUS MINIMUS ANT & POST. 134

74         GRACILIS. 135

75         HYOGLOSSUS. 136

76         ILIACUS. 137

77         ILIOCOSTALIS CERVICIS. 138

78         ILIOCOSTALIS LUMBORUM. 139

79         ILIOCOSTALIS THORACIS. 140

80         INCISIVUS LABII INFERIORIS. 141

81         INCISIVUS LABII SUPERIORIS. 142

82         INFERIOR LONGITUDINAL LINGUALIS. 143

83         INFERIOR OBLIQUE. 144

84         INFERIOR PHARYNGEAL CONSTRICTOR. 146

85         INFERIOR RECTUS. 146

86         INFRASPINATUS (Rotator Cuff Muscle) 148

87         INTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE (Anterior Division) 148

88         INTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE (Lateral Division) 149

89         INTERNAL INTERCOSTALS. 150

90         INTERSPINALES B90E90. 151

91         INTERTRANSVERSARII B91E91. 153

92         INTRINSIC AURICULAR MUSCLES. 155

93         ISCHIOCAVERNOSUS. 157

94         LATERAL CRICOARYTENOID. 157

95         LATERAL PTERYGOID. 158

96         LATERAL RECTUS. 160

97         LATISSIMUS DORSI 160

98         LEVATOR ANGULI ORIS(CANINUS) 161

99         LEVATOR ANI, ILIAC PART(ILIOCOCCYGEUS) 162

100        LEVATOR ANI, PUBIC PART(PUBOCOCCYGEUS) 163

101        LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS. 164

102        LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS ALAEQUE NASI 165

103        LEVATOR PALPEBRAE SUPERIORIS. 166

104        LEVATOR SCAPULAE. 167

105        LEVATOR VELI PALATINI 168

106        LEVATORES COSTARUM BREVES. 169

107        LEVATORES COSTARUM LONGI 170

108        LONGISSIMUS CAPITIS. 171

109        LONGISSIMUS CERVICIS. 172

110        LONGISSIMUS THORACIS. 173

111        LONGUS CAPITIS. 174

112        LONGUS CAPITIS ANTERIOR. 175

113        LONGUS COLLI 176

114        LUMBRICALS (FOOT) 177

115        LUMBRICALS (HAND) 180

116        MASSETER. 180

117        MEDIAL PTERYGOID. 181

118        MEDIAL RECTUS. 183

119        MENTALIS. 183

120        MIDDLE PHARYNGEAL CONSTRICTOR. 184

121        MULTIFIDUS. 185

122        MUSCULUS UVULAE. 186

123        MYLOHYOID (SUPRAHYOID) 187

124        NASALIS, ALAR PORTION. 188

125        NASALIS (COMPRESSOR & DILATOR NARIS) 189

126        OBLIQUE ARYTENOID & ARYEPIGLOTTICUS. 191

127        OBLIQUUS CAPITIS INFERIOR. 191

128        OBLIQUUS CAPITIS SUPERIOR. 192

129        OBTURATOR EXTERNUS (1 of 6 Deep Lateral Rotators of Femur) 193

130        OBTURATOR INTERNUS (1 of 6 Deep Lateral Rotators of Femur) 194

131        OCCIPITALIS (EPICRANIUS) 195

132        OMOHYOID SUPERIOR & INFERIOR (INFRAHYOID) 196

133        OPPONENS DIGITI MINIMI 198

134        OPPONENS POLLICIS. 198

135        ORBICULARIS OCULI 199

136        ORBICULARIS ORIS. 201

137        PALATOGLOSSUS (Palatoglossal arch; Anterior pillar) 203

138        PALATOPHARYNGEUS (Palatopharyngeal arch; Posterior pillar) 203

139        PALMAR INTEROSSEI (HAND) 205

140        PALMARIS BREVIS. 205

141        PALMARIS LONGUS. 206

142        PECTINEUS. 207

143        PECTORALIS MAJOR CLAVICULAR. 208

144        PECTORALIS MAJOR STERNAL. 209

145        PECTORALIS MINOR. 210

146        PERONEUS BREVIS. 211

147        PERONEUS LONGUS. 220

148        PERONEUS TERTIUS. 224

149        PIRIFORMIS (1 of 6 Deep Lateral Rotators of Femur) 226

150        PLANTAR INTEROSSEI (FOOT) 227

151        PLANTARIS. 230

152        PLATYSMA. 233

153        POPLITEUS. 235

154        POSTERIOR CRICOARYTENOID. 237

155        PROCERUS. 238

156        PRONATOR QUADRATUS. 239

157        PRONATOR TERES. 240

158        PSOAS MAJOR. 241

159        PSOAS MINOR. 242

160        PYRAMIDALIS. 243

161        QUADRATUS FEMORIS (1 of 6 Deep Lateral Rotators of the Femur) 244

162        QUADRATUS LUMBORUM. 245

163        QUADRATUS PLANTAE. 246

164        RECTUS ABDOMINIS (4 Divisions as 1) 249

165        RECTUS CAPITIS ANTERIOR. 250

166        RECTUS CAPITIS LATERALIS. 251

167        RECTUS CAPITIS POSTERIOR MAJOR. 252

168        RECTUS CAPITIS POSTERIOR MINOR. 253

169        RECTUS FEMORIS (Quadriceps Femoris) (1 of 4 Quadriceps) 254

170        RHOMBOID MAJOR. 255

171        RHOMBOID MINOR. 256

172        RISORIUS. 257

173        ROTATORES BREVIS. 258

174        ROTATORES LONGUS. 259

175        SALPINGOPHARYNGEUS. 260

176        SARTORIUS. 261

177        SCALENUS ANTERIOR. 262

178        SCALENUS MEDIUS. 263

179        SCALENUS POSTERIOR. 264

180        SEMIMEMBRANOSUS (Medial Hamstring) 265

181        SEMISPINALIS CAPITIS. 266

182        SEMISPINALIS CERVICIS. 267

183        SEMISPINALIS THORACIS. 268

184        SEMITENDINOSUS (Medial Hamstring) 269

185        SERRATUS ANTERIOR. 270

186        SERRATUS POSTERIOR INFERIOR. 271

187        SERRATUS POSTERIOR SUPERIOR. 272

188        SOLEUS. 273

189        SPHINCTER PUPILLAE. 276

190        SPINALIS CAPITIS. 276

191        SPINALIS CERVICIS. 277

192        SPINALIS THORACIS. 278

193        SPINCTER ANI EXTERNUS. 279

194        SPLENIUS CAPITIS. 280

195        SPLENIUS CERVICIS. 281

196        STAPEDIUS. 282

197        STERNALIS. 283

198        STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID. 284

199        STERNOHYOID (INFRAHYOID) 285

200        STERNOTHYROID (INFRAHYOID) 286

201        STYLOGLOSSUS. 287

202        STYLOHYOID (SUPRAHYOID) 288

203        STYLOPHARYNGEUS. 289

204        SUBCLAVIUS. 290

205        SUBSCAPULARIS (Rotator Cuff Muscle) 291

206        SUPERFICIAL TRANSVERSE PERINEUS (SUPERFICIALIS) 292

207        SUPERIOR LONGITUDINAL LINGUALIS. 293

208        SUPERIOR OBLIQUE. 294

209        SUPERIOR PHARYNGEAL CONSTRICTOR. 296

210        SUPERIOR RECTUS. 297

211        SUPINATOR ?. 299

212        SUPRASPINATUS (Rotator Cuff Muscle) 299

213        TEMPORALIS. 300

214        TENSOR FASCIAE LATAE. 301

215        TENSOR TYMPANI 302

216        TENSOR VELI PALATINI 303

217        TERES MAJOR. 304

218        TERES MINOR (Rotator Cuff Muscle) 305

219        THYROARYTENOID VOCALIS & THYROEPIGLOTTICUS. 306

220        THYTROHYOID (INFRAHYOID) 307

221        TIBIALIS ANTERIOR. 308

222        TIBIALIS POSTERIOR. 310

223        TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS. 313

224        TRANSVERSE ARYTENOID. 314

225        TRANSVERSE LINGUALIS (BODY OF TONGUE) 315

226        TRANSVERSE PERINEUS (PROFUNDUS) 316

227        TRAPEZIUS LOWER (Lower Division) 317

228        TRAPEZIUS MIDDLE. 318

229        TRAPEZIUS UPPER. 319

230        TRICEPS BRACHII 320

231        URETHRAL SPHINCTER. 321

232        VASTUS INTERMEDIUS (QUADRICEPS FEMORIS) (1 of 4 Quadriceps) 322

233        VASTUS LATERALIS (Quadriceps Femoris) (1 of 4 Quadriceps) 323

234        VASTUS MEDIALIS (Quadriceps Femoris) (1 of 4 Quadriceps) 324

235        VERTICAL LINGUALIS (BODY OF TONGUE) 325

236        ZYGOMATICUS MAJOR. 326

237        ZYGOMATICUS MINOR. 327

238        KEEPING THIS SPACE WARM. 328

 

 

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1    ABDUCTOR DIGITI MINIMI (FOOT)

Back Table of Contents References

1.1  Word Derivation Pronounce Pronounce

1.1.1  Abductor=Moves part away from midline

1.1.2  Digit=Finger or toe

1.1.3  Minimi= Little finger or toe

1.2  Attachments Illus. (DSL)

1.2.1  Origin

1.2.1.1             Medial and lateral processes of the tuberosity of calcaneus

1.2.2  Insertion

1.2.2.1             Lateral side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the fifth toe

1.3  Action Illus. (DSL)

1.3.1  Abducts the fifth toe away from the fourth toe

1.4  Nerve Supply

1.4.1  Nerve

1.4.1.1             Lateral plantar nerve

1.4.2  Roots

1.4.2.1             S2

1.4.2.2             S3

1.5  Synergists

1.5.1  None

1.1  Muscle Tests

1.1.1  Abductor Digiti Minimi (Foot)

1.2  Trigger Points

1.2.1  ABDUCTOR DIGITI MINIMI (FOOT)

1.3  Organ Reflexes

1.3.1  None

1.3.2  Illustrations

1.4  Meridian

1.4.1  None

1.5  Discussion (Gray)

1.5.1    The Abductor digiti quinti (Abductor minimi digiti) (Fig. 443) Discussion lies along the lateral border of the foot, and is in relation by its medial margin with the lateral plantar vessels and nerves. It arises, by a broad origin, from the lateral process of the tuberosity of the calcaneus, from the under surface of the calcaneus between the two processes of the tuberosity, from the forepart of the medial process, from the plantar aponeurosis, and from the intermuscular septum between it and the Flexor digitorum brevis. Its tendon, after gliding over a smooth facet on the under surface of the base of the fifth metatarsal bone, is inserted, with the Flexor digiti quinti brevis, into the fibular side of the base of the first phalanx of the fifth toe.

1.5.2  Variations —Slips of origin from the tuberosity at the base of the fifth metatarsal Abductor ossis metatarsi quinti, origin external tubercle of the calcaneus, insertion into tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal bone in common with or beneath the outer margin of the plantar fascia

1.5.3  Action-the action of the Abductor digiti quinti is twofold, as an abductor of this toe from the fourth, and as a flexor of its proximal phalanx.

1.5.4  Non Web Based Links

1.5.4.1   Fig443 (Bitmap)

1.5.4.2   Discussion

1.5.5  Discussion

1.5.5.1   http://www.bartleby.com/107/131.html

1.5.6  Illustration

1.5.6.1   http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus443.html

1.6  Category

1.6.1  Intrinsic Foot Plantar First Superficial Layer (IFP1)

1.7  View (When Illustrated Individually)

1.7.1  Plantar View (First Plantar Layer)

1.7.2  Test

1.7.2.1             Illus. (DSL) Illus. (Dial-Up)

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2    ABDUCTOR DIGITI MINIMI (HAND)

Back Table of Contents References

2.1  Word Derivation Pronounce

2.1.1  Abductor=Moves part away from midline

2.1.2  Digit=Finger or toe

2.1.3  Minimi= Little finger or toe

2.2  Attachments Illus. (DSL)

2.2.1  Origin

2.2.1.1             Pisiform bone

2.2.1.2             Tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris

2.2.2  Insertion

2.2.2.1             Two slips

2.2.2.1.1  Ulnar side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the little finger
2.2.2.1.2  Ulnar border of the extensor expansion of the finger

2.3  Action Illus. (DSL)

2.3.1  Abducts the little finger

2.3.2  Assists in flexing its proximal phalanx at the Metacarpophalangeal joint

2.4  Nerve Supply

2.4.1  Nerve

2.4.1.1             Ulnar  (Deep Branch)

2.4.2  Roots

2.4.2.1             C8

2.4.2.2             T1

2.5  Synergists

2.5.1  Flexor digiti minimi brevis

2.5.2  Opponens digiti minimi

2.6  Muscle Tests

2.6.1  ABDUCTOR DIGITI MINIMI (HAND)

2.7  Trigger Points

2.7.1  ABDUCTOR DIGITI MINIMI (HAND)

2.8  Organ Reflexes

2.8.1  None

2.8.2  Illustrations

2.9  Meridian

2.9.1  None

2.10 Discussion (Gray)

2.10.1        The Abductor digiti quinti (Abductor minimi digiti) (Fig. 427) is situated on the ulnar border of the palm of the hand. It arises from the pisiform bone and from the tendon of the Flexor carpi ulnaris, and ends in a flat tendon, which divides into two slips; one is inserted into the ulnar side of the base of the first phalanx of the little finger; the other into the ulnar border of the aponeurosis of the Extensor digiti quinti proprius.

2.10.2        Variations

2.10.2.1          The Abductor digiti quinti may be divided into two or three slips or united with the Flexor digiti quinti brevis.

2.10.3        Actions —The Abductor digiti quinti abducts the little finger from the ring finger and assist in flexing the proximal phalanx.

2.10.4        Nerves-C8 Ulnar

2.11 Category

2.11.1        Intrinsic Hand Hypothenar (IHH)

2.12 View (When Illustrated Individually)

2.12.1        Anterior

2.12.1.1Illus. (DSL)

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3    ABDUCTOR HALLUCIS

Back Table of Contents References 

3.1  Word Derivation

3.1.1  Abductor=Moves part away from midline

3.1.2  Hallucis= Hallux or Great toe

3.2  Attachments Illus. (DSL)

3.2.1  Origin

3.2.1.1   Medial process of tuberosity of the calcaneus

3.2.1.2   Flexor retinaculum

3.2.1.3   Plantar aponeurosis

3.2.1.4   Intermuscular septum

3.3    Insertion

3.3.1.1   Medial tendon of the flexor hallucis brevis

3.3.1.2   Medial side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the big toe

3.4  Action Illus. (DSL)

3.4.1  Abducts the big toe from the mid line of the foot phalangeal

3.5  Nerve Supply

3.5.1  Nerve

3.5.1.1             Medial plantar

3.5.2  Roots

3.5.2.1   L4

3.5.2.2   L5

3.5.2.3   S1

3.5.2.4   S2

3.5.2.5   S3

3.6  Synergists

3.6.1  None

3.7  Muscle Tests

3.7.1  ABDUCTOR HALLUCIS

3.8  Trigger Points

3.8.1  ABDUCTOR HALLUCIS

3.9  Organ Reflexes

3.9.1  None

3.9.2  Illustrations

3.10 Meridian

3.10.1        None

3.11 Discussion (Gray)

3.11.1        The Abductor hallucis (Fig. 443) lies along the medial border of the foot and covers the origins of the plantar vessels and nerves. It arises from the medial process of the tuberosity of the calcaneus, from the laciniate ligament, from the plantar aponeurosis, and from the intermuscular septum between it and the Flexor digitorum brevis. The fibers end in a tendon, which is inserted, together with the medial tendon of the Flexor hallucis brevis, into the tibial side of the base of the first phalanx of the great toe.

3.11.2        Variations —Slip to the base of the first phalanx of the second toe.

3.11.3        Action- The Abductor hallucis abducts the great toe from the second, and also flexes its proximal phalanx.

3.11.4        Discussion

3.11.4.1http://www.bartleby.com/107/131.html

3.11.5        Illustration

3.11.5.1http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus443.html

3.12 Category

3.12.1        Intrinsic Foot Plantar First Superficial Layer (IFP1)

3.13 View (When Illustrated Individually)

3.13.1        Plantar View (First Plantar Layer)

3.13.1.1Illus. (DSL)

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4    ABDUCTOR POLLICIS BREVIS B4E4

Back Table of Contents References 

4.1  Word Derivation

4.1.1  Abductor=Moves part away from midline

4.1.2  Pollex= Thumb

4.1.3  Brevis=Short

4.2  Attachments Illus. (DSL)

4.3    Origin

4.3.1.1   Flexor retinaculum

4.3.1.2   Tubercles of the scaphoid and trapezium

4.4    Insertion

4.4.1.1   Radial side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb

4.5  Action Illus. (DSL)

4.5.1  Abduction of the proximal phalanx and the metacarpal of the thumb

4.5.2  Medial rotation of the proximal phalanx and the metacarpal of the thumb

4.6  Nerve Supply

4.6.1  Nerve

4.6.1.1             Median

4.6.2  Roots

4.6.2.1             C8

4.6.2.2             T1

4.7  Synergists

4.7.1  Abductor pollicis longus

4.7.2  Extensor pollicis brevis

4.8  Muscle Tests

4.8.1  ABDUCTOR POLLICIS BREVIS

4.9  Trigger Points

4.9.1  ABDUCTOR POLLICIS BREVIS

4.10 Organ Reflexes

4.10.1        None

4.10.2        Illustrations

4.11 Meridian

4.11.1        None

4.12 Discussion (Gray)

4.12.1        The Abductor pollicis brevis (Abductor pollicis) (Fig. 426) (Fig. 427) is a thin, flat muscle, placed immediately beneath the integument. It arises from the transverse carpal ligament, the tuberosity of the navicular, and the ridge of the greater multiangular, frequently by two distinct slips. Running lateralward and downward, it is inserted by a thin, flat tendon into the radial side of the base of the first phalanx of the thumb and the capsule of the metacarpophalangeal articulation.

4.12.2        Variations —The Abductor pollicis brevis is often divided into an outer and an inner part; accessory slips from the tendon of the Abductor pollicis longus or Palmaris longus, more rarely from the Extensor carpi radialis longus, from the styloid process or Opponens pollicis or from the skin over the thenar eminence.

4.12.3        Actions —The Abductor pollicis brevis draws the thumb forward in a plane at right angles to that of the palm of the hand.

4.13 Category

4.13.1        Intrinsic Hand Thenar (ITT)

4.14 View (When Illustrated Individually)

4.14.1        Anterior View

4.14.1.1Illus. (DSL)

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5    ABDUCTOR POLLICIS LONGUS B5E5

Back Table of Contents  References

5.1  Word Derivation

5.1.1  Abductor=Moves part away from midline

5.1.2  Pollex= Thumb

5.1.3  Longus=Long

5.2  Attachments Illus. 1 (DSL) Illus. 2 (DSL)

5.3    Origin

5.3.1.1   Posterior surface of middle one third of body of radius

5.3.1.2   Posterior lateral surface of the ulna distal to the origin of the Supinator

5.3.1.3   Interosseous membrane

5.4    Insertion

5.4.1.1   Base of first metacarpal bone, radial side

5.5  Action Illus. (DSL)

5.5.1  Abducts the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb

5.5.2  Assists in extension of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb

5.6  Nerve Supply

5.6.1  Nerve

5.6.1.1             Posterior interosseous nerve (deep radial nerve)

5.6.2  Roots

5.6.2.1             C7

5.6.2.2             C8

5.7  Synergists

5.7.1  Abductor pollicis brevis

5.7.2  Extensor pollicis brevis

5.8  Muscle Tests

5.8.1  ABDUCTOR POLLICIS LONGUS

5.9  Trigger Points

5.9.1  ABDUCTOR POLLICIS LONGUS

5.10 Organ Reflexes

5.10.1        None

5.10.2        Illustrations

5.11 Meridian

5.11.1        None

5.12 Discussion (Gray)

5.12.1        The Abductor pollicis longus (Extensor oss. metacarpi pollicis) (Fig. 419) lies immediately below the Supinator and is sometimes united with it. It arises from the lateral part of the dorsal surface of the body of the ulna below the insertion of the Anconeus, from the interosseous membrane, and from the middle third of the dorsal surface of the body of the radius. Passing obliquely downward and lateralward, it ends in a tendon, which runs through a groove on the lateral side of the lower end of the radius, accompanied by the tendon of the Extensor pollicis brevis, and is inserted into the radial side of the base of the first metacarpal bone. It occasionally gives off two slips near its insertion: one to the greater multiangular bone and the other to blend with the origin of the Abductor pollicis brevis.

5.12.2        Variations —More or less doubling of muscle and tendon with insertion of the extra tendon into the first metacarpal, the greater multiangular, or into the Abductor pollicis brevis or Opponens pollicis

5.12.3        Action- The chief action of the Abductor pollicis longus is to carry the thumb laterally from the palm of the hand. By its continued action, it helps to extend and abduct the wrist.

5.13 Category

5.13.1        Wrist, Hand, and Fingers Posterior Extensors Deep (WHFPED)

5.14 View (When Illustrated Individually)

5.14.1        Posterior

5.14.1.1Illus. (DSL)

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6    ADDUCTOR BREVIS B6E6

Back Table of Contents References 

6.1  Word Derivation

6.1.1  Adductor=Moves part towards the midline

6.1.2  Brevis=Short

6.2  Attachments Illus. 1 (DSL) Illus. 2 (DSL)

6.3    Origin

6.3.1.1   Outer surface of body and inferior ramus of pubis

6.4    Insertion

6.4.1.1   On a line extending from lesser trochanter to upper part of linea aspera

6.5  Action Illus. (DSL)

6.5.1  Hip adduction

6.5.2  Hip flexion

6.5.3  Hip medial rotation

6.6  Nerve Supply

6.6.1  Nerve

6.6.1.1             Obturator

6.6.2  Roots

6.6.2.1             L2

6.6.2.2             L3

6.6.2.3             L4

6.7  Synergists

6.7.1  Adductor magnus

6.7.2  Adductor longus

6.7.3  Gracilis

6.7.4  Pectineus

6.8  Muscle Tests

6.8.1  ADDUCTOR BREVIS

6.9  Trigger Points

6.9.1  ADDUCTOR BREVIS

6.10 Organ Reflexes

6.10.1        CLIMACTERIC

6.10.2        Illustrations

6.11 Meridian

6.11.1        Pericardium

6.12 Discussion (Gray)

6.12.1        The Adductor brevis (Fig. 433) is situated immediately behind the two preceding muscles. It is triangular in form, and arises by a narrow origin from the outer surfaces of the superior and inferior rami of the pubis, between the Gracilis and Obturator externus. Its fibers, passing backward, lateralward, and downward, are inserted, by an aponeurosis, into the line leading from the lesser trochanter to the linea aspera and into the upper part of the linea aspera, immediately behind the Pectineus and upper part of the Adductor longus

6.12.2        Variations- the Adductor brevis may be divided into two or three parts, or it may be united to the Adductor magnus.

6.12.3        Action- the Pectineus and three Adductores adduct the thigh powerfully; they are especially used in horse exercise, the sides of the saddle being grasped between the knees by the contraction of these muscles. In consequence of the obliquity of their insertions into the linea aspera, they rotate the thigh outward, assisting the external Rotators, and when the limb has been abducted, they draw it medialward, carrying the thigh across that of the opposite side. The Pectineus and Adductores brevis and longus assist the Psoas major and Iliacus in flexing the thigh upon the pelvis. In progression, all these muscles assist in drawing forward the lower limb.

6.13 Category

6.13.1        Thigh Adductor Compartment (TAD)

6.14 View (When Illustrated Individually)

6.14.1        Anterior

6.14.1.1Illus. (DSL)

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7    ADDUCTOR HALLUCIS B7E7

Back Table of Contents References 

7.1  Word Derivation

7.1.1  Adductor=Moves part towards the midline

7.1.2  Hallucis= Hallux or Great toe

7.2  Attachments Illus. (DSL)

7.2.1  Origin

7.2.1.1   Oblique head

7.2.1.1.1  Bases of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th metatarsals
7.2.1.1.2  Sheath of tendon of Peroneus Longus

7.2.1.2   Transverse head

7.2.1.2.1  Plantar Metatarsophalangeal ligaments of the 3rd, 4th and 5th toes
7.2.1.2.2  Deep transverse metatarsal ligaments

7.2.2  Insertion

7.2.2.1   Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of big toe

7.3  Action Illus. (DSL)

7.3.1  Adduction (big toe towards the 2nd toe)

7.3.2  Flexion (big toe towards plantar surface)

7.4  Joints

7.4.1  Metatarsophalangeal joint of big toe

7.5  Nerve Supply

7.5.1  Nerve

7.5.1.1             Lateral plantar nerve

7.5.2  Roots

7.5.2.1             S2

7.5.2.2             S3

7.6  Synergists

7.6.1   

7.7  Muscle Tests

7.7.1  ADDUCTOR HALLUCIS

7.8  Trigger Points

7.8.1  ADDUCTOR HALLUCIS

7.9  Organ Reflexes

7.9.1  None

7.9.2  Illustrations

7.10 Meridian

7.10.1        None

7.11 Discussion (Grays)

7.11.1          The Adductor hallucis (Adductor obliquus hallucis) (Fig. 445) arises by two heads—oblique and transverse. The oblique head is a large, thick, fleshy mass, crossing the foot obliquely and occupying the hollow space under the first second, third, and fourth metatarsal bones. It arises from the bases of the second, third, and fourth metatarsal bones, and from the sheath of the tendon of the Peroneus longus, and is inserted, together with the lateral portion of the Flexor hallucis brevis, into the lateral side of the base of the first phalanx of the great toe. The transverse head (Transversus pedis) is a narrow, flat fasciculus which arises from the plantar metatarsophalangeal ligaments of the third, fourth, and fifth toes (sometimes only from the third and fourth), and from the transverse ligament of the metatarsus. It is inserted into the lateral side of the base of the first phalanx of the great toe, its fibers blending with the tendon of insertion of the oblique head.

7.11.2        Variations

7.11.2.1          Slips to the base of the first phalanx of the second toe Opponens hallucis, occasional slips from the adductor to the metatarsal bone of the great toe

7.11.2.2          The Abductor, Flexor brevis, and Adductor of the great toe, like the similar muscles of the thumb, give off, at their insertions, fibrous expansions to blend with the tendons of the Extensor digitorum longus.

7.11.3        Action- the Abductor hallucis abducts the great toe from the second, and flexes its proximal phalanx.

7.11.4        Discussion

7.11.4.1http://www.bartleby.com/107/131.html

7.11.5        Illustration

7.11.5.1http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus445.html

7.12 Category

7.12.1        Intrinsic Foot Plantar Third Layer (IFP3)

7.13 View (When Illustrated Individually)

7.13.1        Plantar

7.13.1.1.1               Illus. (DSL)
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8    ADDUCTOR LONGUS B8E8

Back Table of Contents References 

8.1  Word Derivation

8.1.1  Adductor=Moves part towards the midline

8.1.2  Longus=Long

8.2  Attachments Illus. 1 (DSL) Illus. 2 (DSL)

8.2.1  Origin

8.2.1.1   Anterior pubis in angle between crest and symphysis

8.2.2  Insertion

8.2.2.1   Middle 1/3 of medial lip of linea aspera

8.3  Joints

8.3.1  Hip

8.4  Action Illus. (DSL)

8.4.1  Adduction

8.4.2  Flexion

8.4.3  Medial rotation

8.5  Nerve Supply

8.5.1  Nerve

8.5.1.1             Obturator

8.5.2  Roots

8.5.2.1             L2

8.5.2.2             L3

8.5.2.3             L4

8.6  Synergists

8.6.1  Gracilis

8.6.2  Adductor magnus

8.6.3  Pectineus

8.6.4  Adductor brevis

8.7  Muscle Tests

8.7.1  ADDUCTOR LONGUS

8.8  Trigger Points

8.8.1  ADDUCTOR LONGUS

8.9  Organ Reflexes

8.9.1  CLIMACTERIC

8.9.2  Illustrations

8.10 Meridian

8.10.1        Pericardium

8.11 Discussion (Gray)

8.11.1         The Adductor longus (Fig 432) (Fig. 433), the most superficial of the three Adductores, is a triangular muscle, lying in the same plane as the Pectineus. It arises by a flat, narrow tendon, from the front of the pubis, at the angle of junction of the crest with the symphysis; and soon expands into a broad fleshy belly. This passes downward, backward, and lateralward, and is inserted, by an aponeurosis, into the linea aspera, between the Vastus medialis and the Adductor magnus, with both of which it is usually blended.

8.11.2        Variations-The Adductor longus may be double, may extend to the knee, or be more or less united with the Pectineus.

8.11.3        Action-The Pectineus and three Adductores adduct the thigh powerfully; they are especially used in horse exercise, the sides of the saddle being grasped between the knees by the contraction of these muscles. In consequence of the obliquity of their insertions into the linea aspera, they rotate the thigh outward, assisting the external Rotators, and when the limb has been abducted, they draw it medialward, carrying the thigh across that of the opposite side. The Pectineus and Adductores brevis and longus assist the Psoas major and Iliacus in flexing the thigh upon the pelvis. In progression, all these muscles assist in drawing forward the lower limb.

8.12 Category

8.12.1        Thigh Adductor Compartment (TAD)

8.13 View (When Illustrated Individually)

8.13.1        Anterior

8.13.1.1Illus. (DSL)

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9    ADDUCTOR MAGNUS B9E9

Back Table of Contents References 

9.1  Word Derivation

9.1.1  Adductor=Moves part towards the midline

9.1.2  Magnus=Large

9.2  Attachments Illus. 1 (DSL) Illus. 2 (DSL)

9.2.1  Origin

9.2.1.1   POSTERIOR FIBERS

9.2.1.1.1  Ischial tuberosity

9.2.1.2   ANTERIOR FIBERS

9.2.1.2.1  Ramus of ischium
9.2.1.2.2  Inferior pubic ramus

9.2.2  Insertion

9.2.2.1   Line extending from the greater trochanter along the linea aspera

9.2.2.2   Medial supracondylar line

9.2.2.3   Adductor tubercle on medial condyle of femur

9.3  Joints

9.3.1  Hip

9.4  Action Illus. (DSL) 

9.4.1  Adduction

9.4.2   Extension

9.4.2.1             . Note

9.4.2.1.1   Fibers arising from ischium and ramus of ischium primarily insert distally and aid in hip extension

9.4.3  Flexion

9.4.3.1             Note

9.4.3.1.1  Fibers arising from ramus of pubis insert proximally and aid in hip flexion.

9.4.4  Medial rotation

9.5  Nerve Supply

9.5.1  Posterior fibers

9.5.1.1             Nerve

9.5.1.1.1  Tibial portion of sciatic

9.5.1.2             Roots

9.5.1.2.1  L4
9.5.1.2.2  L5
9.5.1.2.3  S1

9.5.2  Anterior fibers

9.5.2.1             Nerve

9.5.2.1.1  Obturator

9.5.2.2             Roots

9.5.2.2.1  L2
9.5.2.2.2  L3
9.5.2.2.3  L4

9.6  Synergists

9.6.1  Adductor brevis

9.6.2  Adductor longus

9.6.3  Pectineus

9.6.4  Gracilis

9.7  Muscle Tests

9.7.1  ADDUCTOR MAGNUS

9.8  Trigger Points

9.8.1  ADDUCTOR MAGNUS

9.9  Organ Reflexes

9.9.1  CLIMACTERIC

9.9.2  Illustrations

9.10 Meridian

9.10.1        Pericardium

9.11 Discussion (Gray)

9.11.1        The Adductor magnus Fig 432 (Fig. 433) is a large triangular muscle, situated on the medial side of the thigh. It arises from a small part of the inferior ramus of the pubis, from the inferior ramus of the ischium, and from the outer margin of the inferior part of the tuberosity of the ischium. Those fibers which arise from the ramus of the pubis are short, horizontal in direction, and are inserted into the rough line leading from the greater trochanter to the linea aspera, medial to the Glutæus maximus; those from the ramus of the ischium are directed downward and lateralward with different degrees of obliquity, to be inserted, by means of a broad aponeurosis, into the linea aspera and the upper part of its medial prolongation below. The medial portion of the muscle, composed principally of the fibers arising from the tuberosity of the ischium, forms a thick fleshy mass consisting of coarse bundles which descend almost vertically, and end about the lower third of the thigh in a rounded tendon which is inserted into the adductor tubercle on the medial condyle of the femur, and is connected by a fibrous expansion to the line leading upward from the tubercle to the linea aspera. At the insertion of the muscle, there is a series of osseoaponeurotic openings, formed by tendinous arches attached to the bone. The upper four openings are small, and give passage to the perforating branches of the profunda femoris artery. The lowest is of large size, and transmits the femoral vessels to the popliteal fossa.

9.11.2        Variations-The Adductor magnus may be more or less segmented; the anterior and superior portion is often described as a separate muscle, the Adductor minimus. The muscle may be fused with the Quadratus femoris.

9.11.3        Action-The Pectineus and three Adductores adduct the thigh powerfully; they are especially used in horse exercise, the sides of the saddle being grasped between the knees by the contraction of these muscles. In consequence of the obliquity of their insertions into the linea aspera, they rotate the thigh outward, assisting the external Rotators, and when the limb has been abducted, they draw it medialward, carrying the thigh across that of the opposite side.

9.12 Category

9.12.1        Thigh Adductor Compartment (TAD)

9.13 View (When Illustrated Individually)

9.13.1        Anterior

9.13.1.1Illus. (DSL)

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10    ADDUCTOR POLLICIS B10E10

Back Table of Contents References 

10.1 Word Derivation

10.1.1        Adductor=Moves part towards the midline

10.1.2        Pollex= Thumb

10.2 Attachments Illus. (DSL)

10.2.1        Origin

10.2.1.1OBLIQUE HEAD

10.2.1.1.1         Capitate bone
10.2.1.1.2         Bases of the 2nd and 3rd metacarpal bones
10.2.1.1.3         Intercarpal ligaments
10.2.1.1.4         Sheath of the tendon of the Flexor carpi radialis

10.2.1.2TRANSVERSE HEAD

10.2.1.2.1         Distal 2/3 of the palmar surface of the 3rd metacarpal bone

10.2.2        Insertion

10.2.2.1Two heads converge to insert on the ulnar side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb

10.3 Joints

10.3.1        Carpometacarpal (CMJ)

10.3.2        Metacarpophalangeal (MPJ)

10.4 Action Illus. (DSL)

10.4.1        Adduction (1st CMJ) (Thumb)

10.4.2        Adduction (1st MPJ) (Thumb)

10.4.3        Flexion (1st MPJ) (Thumb)

10.5 Nerve Supply

10.5.1        Nerve

10.5.1.1          Ulnar (Deep branch)

10.5.2        Roots

10.5.2.1          C8

10.5.2.2          T1

10.6 Synergists

10.6.1        Flexor pollicis brevis

10.6.2        Flexor pollicis longus

10.6.3        Opponens pollicis

10.7 Muscle Tests

10.7.1        ADDUCTOR POLLICIS

10.8 Trigger Points

10.8.1        ADDUCTOR POLLICIS

10.9 Organ Reflexes

10.9.1        None

10.9.2        Illustrations

10.10             Meridian

10.10.1    None

10.11             Discussion (Gray)

10.11.1    The Adductor pollicis (obliquus) (Adductor obliquus pollicis) (Fig. 426) arises by several slips from the capitate bone, the bases of the second and third metacarpals, the intercarpal ligaments, and the sheath of the tendon of the Flexor carpi radialis. From this origin the greater number of fibers pass obliquely downward and converge to a tendon, which, uniting with the tendons of the medial portion of the Flexor pollicis brevis and the transverse part of the Adductor, is inserted into the ulnar side of the base of the first phalanx of the thumb, a sesamoid bone being present in the tendon. A considerable fasciculus, however, passes more obliquely beneath the tendon of the Flexor pollicis longus to join the lateral portion of the Flexor brevis and the Abductor pollicis brevis.

10.11.2    The Adductor pollicis (transversus) (Adductor transversus pollicis) (Fig. 426) Fig 427 is the most deeply seated of this group of muscles. It is of a triangular form arising by a broad base from the lower two-thirds of the volar surface of the third metacarpal bone; the fibers converge, to be inserted with the medial part of the Flexor pollicis brevis and the Adductor pollicis (obliquus) into the ulnar side of the base of the first phalanx of the thumb

10.11.3    Variations-The two adductors vary in their relative extent and in the closeness of their connection. The Adductor obliquus may receive a slip from the transverse metacarpal ligament.

10.11.4    Actions-The Abductor pollicis brevis draws the thumb forward in a plane at right angles to that of the palm of the hand. The Adductor pollicis is the opponent of this muscle, and approximates the thumb to the palm.

10.12             Category

10.12.1    Intrinsic Hand Thenar (IHT)

10.13             View (When Illustrated Individually)

10.13.1    Anterior

10.13.1.1 Illus. (DSL)

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11    ANCONEUS B11E11

Back Table of Contents References 

11.1 Word Derivation

11.1.1        Anconeal=Pertaining to elbow

11.2 Attachments Illus.1  (DSL) Illus.2  (DSL)

11.2.1        Origin

11.2.1.1Posterior surface of lateral Epicondyle of humerus

11.2.2        Insertion

11.2.2.1Lateral side of Olecranon process

11.2.2.2Upper 1/4th of posterior surface of proximal portion of ulna

11.3 Joints

11.3.1        Elbow

11.3.2        Radioulnar (RU)

11.4 Action Illus. (DSL)

11.4.1        Extension (Elbow)

11.4.2        Pronation (RU)

11.5 Nerve Supply

11.5.1        Nerve

11.5.1.1          Radial

11.5.2        Roots

11.5.2.1          C7

11.5.2.2          C8

11.5.2.3          T1

11.6 Synergists

11.6.1        Triceps Brachii

11.7 Muscle Tests

11.7.1        ANCONEUS

11.8 Trigger Points

11.8.1        ANCONEUS

11.9 Organ Reflexes

11.9.1        Pancreas

11.9.2        Illustrations

11.10             Meridian

11.10.1    Spleen/Pancreas

11.11             Discussion (Gray)

11.11.1    The Anconæus (Fig. 418) is a small triangular muscle, which is placed on the back of the elbow-joint, and appears to be a continuation of the Triceps brachii. It arises by a separate tendon from the back part of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus; its fibers diverge and are inserted into the side of the olecranon, and upper fourth of the dorsal surface of the body of the ulna.

11.11.2    Actions-The Anconæus assists the Triceps in extending the forearm.

11.12             Category

11.12.1    Forearm Extensors (FAE)

11.13             View (When Illustrated Individually)

11.13.1    Posterior

11.13.1.1 Illus. (DSL)

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12    BICEPS BRACHII B12E12

Back Table of Contents References 

12.1 Word Derivation and Pronunciation

12.2 Pronunciation

12.2.1.1BICEPS BRA·CHII- 'bI-"seps 'brA-kE-"I, -kE-"E Icon

12.2.1.2Pronunciation Key

12.2.1        Etymology

12.2.1.1Biceps=Two heads of origin

12.2.1.1.1         New Latin bicipit-, biceps, from Latin, two-headed, from bi- + capit-, caput head

12.2.1.2Brachion=Upper Arm

12.1 Attachments Illus. 1 Illus. 2

12.1.1        Origin

12.1.1.1Long head

12.1.1.1.1            Supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula

12.1.1.2Short head

12.1.1.2.1            Apex of coracoid process of the scapula

12.1.2        Insertion

12.1.2.1Radial tuberosity

12.1.2.2Bicipital aponeurosis (lacertus fibrosus) (Continuous with the deep fascia covering the origins of the Flexor muscles)

12.2 Joints

12.2.1        Glenohumeral (GH)

12.2.2        Elbow

12.2.3        Radioulnar (RU)

12.3 Action Video

12.3.1        Flexion (Elbow)

12.3.2        Supination (RU)

12.3.3        Flexion (GH)

12.3.4        Reversed origin-insertion action

12.3.4.1          Both heads of the biceps brachii are active during flexion of the arm at the shoulder joint, with the long head being more active.

12.4 Nerve Supply

12.4.1        Nerve

12.4.1.1          Musculocutaneous

12.4.1.1.1         Separate branches to each head

12.4.2        Roots

12.4.2.1          C5

12.4.2.2          C6

12.5 Synergists

12.5.1        Brachialis

12.5.2        Brachioradialis

12.5.3        Supinator

12.1 Muscle Tests

12.1.1        BICEPS BRACHII

12.2 Trigger Points

12.2.1        BICEPS BRACHII

12.3 Organ Reflexes

12.3.1        Stomach

12.3.2        Illustrations

12.4 Acupressure/Acupuncture Theory

12.4.1        Organs

12.4.1.1Spleen/Stomach

12.4.2        Channels Discussion

12.4.2.1Spleen/Stomach

12.4.3        Channels Illustration All

12.4.3.1Stomach ALL

12.4.4        Channels Illus Command Points

12.4.4.1Stomach

12.5 Musculoskeletal Pathology

12.5.1        BICEPS TENDINTIS (Proximal)

12.5.2        BICEPS TENDINTIS (Distal)

12.6 Orthopaedic Tests

12.6.1        Biceps Strength

12.6.2        Bicipital Tendinitis Test

12.6.3        Impingement Syndrome Test

12.6.4        Reflexes (Shoulder)

12.6.5        Yergason's Test

12.7 Musculoskeletal Examination

12.7.1        Shoulder and Shoulder Girdle

12.7.2        Elbow

12.8 Stretching

12.8.1        Stretching Concepts

12.8.2        Stretching Individual Muscle Discussion

12.8.3        Stretching Muscle Illustration

12.9 Posture

12.9.1        Postural Assessment

12.9.2        Postural Illustrations

12.10             Massage Routines

12.10.1    Deep Tissue

12.10.1.1 Deltoid

12.10.1.2 Biceps Triceps

12.11             Exercise

12.11.1    Biceps Brachii-Resistance Exercise

12.11.2    Biceps Brachii- Biomechanics

12.12             Discussion (Gray)

12.12.1    The Biceps brachii (Biceps; Biceps flexor cubiti) (Fig. 411) Discussion is a long fusiform muscle, placed on the front of the arm, and arising by two heads, from which circumstance it has received its name. The short head arises by a thick flattened tendon from the apex of the coracoid process, in common with the Coracobrachialis. The long head arises from the supraglenoid tuberosity at the upper margin of the glenoid cavity, and is continuous with the glenoidal labrum. This tendon, enclosed in a special sheath of the synovial membrane of the shoulder-joint, arches over the head of the humerus; it emerges from the capsule through an opening close to the humeral attachment of the ligament, and descends in the intertubercular groove; it is retained in the groove by the transverse humeral ligament and by a fibrous prolongation from the tendon of the Pectoralis major. An elongated muscular belly succeeds each tendon, and the two bellies, although closely applied to each other, can readily be separated until within about 7.5 cm. of the elbow-joint. Here they end in a flattened tendon, which is inserted into the rough posterior portion of the tuberosity of the radius, a bursa being interposed between the tendon and the front part of the tuberosity. As the tendon of the muscle approaches the radius it is twisted upon itself, so that its anterior surface becomes lateral and is applied to the tuberosity of the radius at its insertion. Opposite the bend of the elbow the tendon gives off, from its medial side, a broad aponeurosis, the lacertus fibrosus (bicipital fascia) which passes obliquely downward and medialward across the brachial artery, and is continuous with the deep fascia covering the origins of the Flexor muscles of the forearm (Fig. 410).

12.12.2    Variations —A third head (10 per cent.) to the Biceps brachii is occasionally found, arising at the upper and medial part of the Brachialis, with the fibers of which it is continuous, and inserted into the lacertus fibrosus and medial side of the tendon of the muscle. In most cases, this additional slip lies behind the brachial artery in its coarse down the arm. In some instances, the third head consists of two slips, which pass down, one in front of and the other behind the artery, concealing the vessel in the lower half of the arm. More rarely a fourth head occurs arising from the outer side of the humerus, from the intertubercular groove, or from the greater tubercle. Other heads are occasionally found. Slips sometimes pass from the inner border of the muscle over the brachial artery to the medial intermuscular septum or the medial epicondyle or more rarely to the Pronator teres or Brachialis. The long head may be absent or arise from the intertubercular groove.

12.12.3    Actions- The Biceps brachii is a flexor of the elbow and, to a less extent, of the shoulder; it is also a powerful Supinator, and serves to render tense the deep fascia of the forearm by means of the lacertus fibrosus given off from its tendon.

12.12.4    Non Web Based Links

12.12.4.1       Fig. 410

12.12.4.2       Fig. 411

12.12.4.3       Discussion

12.13             Quiz

12.13.1    Test Your Knowledge

12.14             Category

12.14.1    Forearm Flexors (FAF)

12.15             View (When Illustrated Individually)

12.15.1    Anterior

12.15.1.1 Illus. (DSL)

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1     BICEPS FEMORIS (Lateral Hamstring) B13E13

Back Table of Contents References 

1.1  Word Derivation

1.1.1  Biceps=Two heads of origin

1.1.2  Femoris=Femur

1.2  Attachments Illus. (DSL)

1.2.1  Origin

1.2.1.1   Long head

1.2.1.1.1  Ischial tuberosity (Posterior Lower & Inner Impression)
1.2.1.1.2  Sacrotuberous ligament

1.2.1.2   Short head

1.2.1.2.1  Lateral lip of linea aspera
1.2.1.2.2  Proximal 2/3rd of lateral supracondylar line of femur
1.2.1.3       Lateral intermuscular septum

1.2.2  Insertion

1.2.2.1   Lateral side of the head of the fibula

1.2.2.2   Lateral condyle of the tibia

1.2.2.3   Deep fascia on the lateral side of the leg

1.3  Joints

1.3.1  Knee

1.3.2  Hip

1.4  Action Illus. (DSL)

1.4.1  Long and Short Head

1.4.1.1             Flexion (Knee)

1.4.1.2             Lateral rotation (Knee)

1.4.2  Long Head Only

1.4.2.1   Extension (Hip)

1.4.2.2   Adduction (Hip)

1.4.2.3   Lateral Rotation (Hip)

1.4.2.4   Note

1.4.2.4.1  When the hip is extended the long head of the biceps Femoris is placed at a mechanical disadvantage in knee extension. The short head of the biceps Femoris then becomes the primary knee flexor.

1.4.2.5   Reversed origin-insertion action

1.4.2.5.1  The long head gives posterior stability to the pelvis and extends the pelvis on the hip.

1.5  Nerve Supply

1.5.1  LONG HEAD

1.5.1.1             Nerve

1.5.1.1.1  Sciatic (Tibial Portion)

1.5.1.2             Roots

1.5.1.2.1  L5
1.5.1.2.2  S1
1.5.1.2.3  S2

1.5.2  Short head

1.5.2.1   Nerve

1.5.2.1.1  Sciatic (Common peroneal portion)

1.5.2.2   Roots

1.5.2.2.1  L5
1.5.2.2.2  S1
1.5.2.2.3  S2

1.6  Synergists

1.6.1  Semimembranosus

1.6.2  Semitendinosus

1.6.3  Gracilis

1.6.4  Sartorius

1.6.5  Gastrocnemius

1.7  Muscle Tests

1.7.1  BICEPS FEMORIS

1.8  Trigger Points

1.8.1  BICEPS FEMORIS

1.9  Organ Reflexes

1.9.1  Rectum

1.9.2  Illustrations

1.10 Meridian

1.10.1        Large Intestine

1.11 Discussion (Gray)

1.11.1        The Biceps femoris (Biceps) (Fig. 434) is situated on the posterior and lateral aspect of the thigh. It has two heads of origin; one, the long head, arises from the lower and inner impression on the back part of the tuberosity of the ischium, by a tendon common to it and the Semitendinosus, and from the lower part of the sacrotuberous ligament; the other, the short head, arises from the lateral lip of the linea aspera, between the Adductor magnus and Vastus lateralis, extending up almost as high as the insertion of the Gluteus maximus; from the lateral prolongation of the linea aspera to within 5 cm. of the lateral condyle; and from the lateral intermuscular septum. The fibers of the long head form a fusiform belly, which passes obliquely downward and lateralward across the sciatic nerve to end in an aponeurosis which covers the posterior surface of the muscle, and receives the fibers of the short head; this aponeurosis becomes gradually contracted into a tendon, which is inserted into the lateral side of the head of the fibula, and by a small slip into the lateral condyle of the tibia. At its insertion, the tendon divides into two portions, which embrace the fibular collateral ligament of the knee-joint. From the posterior border of the tendon, a thin expansion is given off to the fascia of the leg. The tendon of insertion of this muscle forms the lateral hamstring; the common peroneal nerve descends along its medial border

1.11.2        Variations —The short head may be absent; additional heads may arise from the ischial tuberosity, the linea aspera, and the medial supracondylar ridge of the femur or from various other parts. A slip may pass to the Gastrocnemius.

1.11.3        Actions —The hamstring muscles flex the leg upon the thigh. When the knee is semiflexed, the Biceps femoris in consequence of its oblique direction rotates the leg outward; and the Semitendinosus, and to a slight extent the Semimembranosus, rotate the leg inward, assisting the Popliteus. Taking their fixed point from below, these muscles serve to support the pelvis upon the head of the femur, and to draw the trunk directly backward, as in raising it from the stooping position or in feats of strength, when the body is thrown backward in the form of an arch. As already indicated on page 285, complete flexion of the hip cannot be affected unless the knee-joint is also flexed, because of the shortness of the hamstring muscles.

1.12 Category

1.12.1        Leg Posterior Flexor Compartment (LPF)

1.13 View (When Illustrated Individually)

1.13.1        Posterior

1.13.1.1Illus. (DSL)

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2    BRACHIALIS B14E14

Back Table of Contents References 

2.1  Word Derivation

2.1.1  Brachion=Arm

2.2  Attachments Illus. 1  (DSL) Illus. 2  (DSL)

2.2.1  Origin

2.2.1.1   Deltoid tuberosity (embraces by two angular processes)

2.2.1.2   Humerus (Lower ½) (Anterior) (To within 2.5 cm of articular margin)

2.2.1.3   Intermuscular Septa (More Medial than Lateral)

2.2.2  Insertion

2.2.2.1   Tuberosity of the ulna

2.2.2.2   Coronoid process of the ulna (Rough depression on the anterior surface)

2.3  Joints

2.3.1  Elbow

2.4  Action Illus. (DSL)

2.4.1  Flexion

2.5  Nerve Supply

2.5.1  Nerve

2.5.1.1             Musculocutaneous

2.5.1.2   Radial

2.5.2  Roots

2.5.2.1   C5 (Musculocutaneous)

2.5.2.2   C6 (Musculocutaneous)

2.5.2.3             C7 (Radial)

2.6  Synergists

2.6.1  Brachioradialis

2.6.2  Biceps brachii

2.7  Muscle Tests

2.7.1  BRACHIALIS

2.8  Trigger Points

2.8.1  BRACHIALIS

2.9  Organ Reflexes

2.9.1  Stomach

2.9.2  Illustrations

2.10 Meridian

2.10.1        Stomach

2.11 Discussion (Gray)

2.11.1        The Brachialis (Brachialis anticus) (Fig. 411) covers the front of the elbow-joint and the lower half of the humerus. It arises from the lower half of the front of the humerus, commencing above at the insertion of the Deltoideus, which it embraces by two angular processes. Its origin extends below to within 2.5 cm. of the margin of the articular surface. It also arises from the intermuscular septa, but more extensively from the medial than the lateral; it is separated from the lateral below by the Brachioradialis and Extensor carpi radialis longus. Its fibers converge to a thick tendon, which is inserted into the tuberosity of the ulna and the rough depression on the anterior surface of the coronoid process.

2.11.2        Variations —Occasionally doubled; additional slips to the Supinator, Pronator teres, Biceps, lacertus fibrosus, or radius are more rarely found.

2.11.3        Actions- the Brachialis is a flexor of the forearm, and forms an important defence to the elbow-joint. When the forearm is fixed, the Biceps brachii and Brachialis flex the arm upon the forearm, as in efforts of climbing.

2.12 Category

2.12.1        Forearm Flexors (FAF)

2.13 View

2.13.1        Anterior

2.13.1.1Illus. (DSL)

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3    BRACHIORADIALIS B15E15

Back Table of Contents References 

3.1  Word Derivation

3.1.1  Brachion=Arm

3.1.2  Radialis=Radius

3.2  Attachments Illus.1  (DSL) Illus.2  (DSL)

3.2.1  Origin

3.2.1.1   Humerus (Lateral supracondylar ridge) (Proximal 2/3)

3.2.1.2   Intermuscular septum (Lateral)

3.2.2  Insertion

3.2.2.1   Radius (Styloid Process-Base-Lateral Side)

3.3  Joints

3.3.1  Elbow

3.3.2  Radioulnar (RU) Distal

3.4  Action Illus. (DSL)

3.4.1  Flexion

3.4.2  Pronation (To midposition when joint is supinated) (RU) Distal

3.4.3  Supination (To midposition when joint is Pronated)  (RU) Distal

3.5  Nerve Supply

3.5.1  Nerve

3.5.1.1             Radial

3.5.2  Roots

3.5.2.1             C5

3.5.2.2             C6

3.5.2.3             C7

3.6  Synergists

3.6.1  Brachialis

3.6.2  Biceps brachii

3.7  Muscle Tests

3.7.1  BRACHIORADIALIS

3.8  Trigger Points

3.8.1  BRACHIORADIALIS

3.9  Organ Reflexes

3.9.1  Stomach

3.9.2  Illustrations

3.10 Meridian

3.10.1        Stomach

3.11 Discussion (Gray)

3.11.1        The Brachioradialis (Supinator longus) (Fig. 414) (Fig. 417) (Fig. 418) is the most superficial muscle on the radial side of the forearm. It arises from the upper two-thirds of the lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus, and from the lateral intermuscular septum, being limited above by the groove for the radial nerve. Interposed between it and the Brachialis are the radial nerve and the anastomosis between the anterior branch of the profunda artery and the radial recurrent. The fibers end above the middle of the forearm in a flat tendon, which is inserted into the lateral side of the base of the styloid process of the radius. The tendon is crossed near its insertion by the tendons of the Abductor pollicis longus and Extensor pollicis brevis; on its ulnar, side is the radial artery.

3.11.2        Variations —Fusion with the Brachialis; tendon of insertion may be divided into two or three slips; insertion partial or complete into the middle of the radius, fasciculi to the tendon of the Biceps, the tuberosity or oblique line of the radius; slips to the Extensor carpi radialis longus or Abductor pollicis longus; absence; rarely doubled.

3.11.3        Actions-The Brachioradialis is a flexor of the elbow-joint, but only acts as such when the Biceps brachii and Brachialis have initiated the movement of flexion.

3.12 Category

3.12.1        Forearm Flexors (FAF)

3.13 View

3.13.1        Anterior

3.13.1.1Illus. (DSL)

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4    BUCCINATOR B16E16

Back Table of Contents References 

4.1  Word Derivation

4.1.1  Bucc=Cheek

4.1.2  Buccina=a trumpet

4.2  Attachments

4.2.1  Origin

4.2.1.1   Upper attachment

4.2.1.1.1  Maxilla (External surfaces of the alveolar process) (Corresponding to the three molar teeth) (Crossing the maxillary tuberosity to the pterygold hamulus)

4.2.1.2   Middle attachment

4.2.1.2.1  Pterygomandibular raphe (Anterior border)

4.2.1.3   Inferior attachment

4.2.1.3.1  Mandible (External surfaces of the alveolar processes) (Corresponding to the three molar teeth) (Crossing the junction of the ramus and body to the posterior end of the mylohyoid line)
4.2.1.3.2  Mandible (Buccinator Ridge)

4.2.2  Insertion

4.2.2.1   Upper fibers

4.2.2.1.1  Orbicularis Oris (Blend with upper fibers)

4.2.2.2   Middle fibers

4.2.2.2.1  Orbicularis Oris (Decussate (cross) so that lower and upper ones continue into upper and lower parts of the Orbicularis Oris)

4.2.2.3   Lower fibers

4.2.2.3.1  Blend with lower fibers of orbicularis oris

4.3  Action Illus. (DSL)

4.3.1  Compresses the cheeks against the teeth

4.3.2  Draws angle of the mouth laterally.

4.4  Nerve Supply

4.4.1  Facial (VII)

4.4.2  Inferior buccal branch

4.5  Arterial supply

4.5.1  Buccal (Maxillary)

4.5.2  Facial

4.5.3  Transverse facial

4.6  Synergists

4.6.1  Risorius

4.7  Antagonists

4.7.1  Orbicularis oris

4.8  Muscle Tests

4.8.1  BUCCINATOR

4.9  Trigger Points

4.9.1  BUCCINATOR

4.10 Organ Reflexes

4.10.1        None

4.10.2        Illustrations

4.11 Meridian

4.11.1        None

4.12 Discussion (Gray)

4.12.1        The Buccinator (Fig. 380) (Fig. 381) is a thin quadrilateral muscle, occupying the interval between the maxilla and the mandible at the side of the face. It arises from the outer surfaces of the alveolar processes of the maxilla and mandible, corresponding to the three molar teeth; and behind, from the anterior border of the pterygomandibular raphé which separates it from the Constrictor pharyngis superior. The fibers converge toward the angle of the mouth, where the central fibers intersect each other, those from below being continuous with the upper segment of the Orbicularis oris, and those from above with the lower segment; the upper and lower fibers are continued forward into the corresponding lip without decussation.

4.12.2        Relations —The Buccinator is covered by the buccopharyngeal fascia, and is in relation by its superficial surface, behind, with a large mass of fat, which separates it from the ramus of the mandible, the Masseter, and a small portion of the Temporalis; this fat has been named the suctorial pad, because it is supposed to assist in the act of sucking. The parotid duct pierces the Buccinator opposite the second molar tooth of the maxilla. The deep surface is in relation with the buccal glands and mucous membrane of the mouth.

4.12.3        Actions- The Buccinators compress the cheeks, so that, during the process of mastication, the food is kept under the immediate pressure of the teeth. When the cheeks have been previously distended with air, the Buccinator muscles expel it from between the lips, as in blowing a trumpet; hence the name (buccina, a trumpet).

4.13 Category

4.13.1        Facial Expression (FE)

4.14 View

4.14.1        Anterior

4.14.1.1Illus. (DSL)  

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5    BULBOCAVERNOSUS (BULBOSPONGIOSUS) B17E17

Back Table of Contents References 

5.1  Word Derivation

5.1.1  Bulbus=Bulb

5.1.2  Caverna=Hollow

5.2  Attachments

5.2.1  Origin

5.2.1.1   Central tendon of perineum

5.2.2  Insertion

5.2.2.1   Inferior fascia of urogenital diaphragm

5.2.2.2   Corpus spongiosum of penis

5.2.2.3   Deep fascia on dorsum of penis in male

5.2.2.4   Pubic arch (Female)

5.2.2.5   Root and dorsum of clitoris (Female)

5.3     Action Illus. (DSL)

5.3.1  Helps expel last drops of urine during micturition

5.3.2  Propel semen along urethra

5.3.3  Assist in erection of the penis in male

5.3.4  Decreases vaginal orifice and assists in erection of clitoris in female

5.4  Nerve Supply

5.4.1  Perineal branch of pudendal nerve

5.5  Synergists

5.5.1   

5.6  Muscle Tests

5.6.1  BULBOCAVERNOSUS

5.7  Trigger Points

5.7.1  BULBOCAVERNOSUS

5.8  Organ Reflexes

5.8.1  None

5.8.2  Illustrations

5.9  Meridian

5.9.1  None

5.10 Discussion (Gray)

5.10.1        The Bulbocavernosus (Ejaculator urinæ; Accelerator urinæ) (Fig. 406) is placed in the middle line of the perineum, in front of the anus. It consists of two symmetrical parts, united along the median line by a tendinous raphé. It arises from the central tendinous point of the perineum and from the median raphé in front. Its fibers diverge like the barbs of a quill-pen; the most posterior form a thin layer, which is lost on the inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm; the middle fibers encircle the bulb and adjacent parts, of the corpus cavernosum urethræ, and join with the fibers of the opposite side, on the upper part of the corpus cavernosum urethræ, in a strong aponeurosis; the anterior fibers, spread out over the side of the corpus cavernosum penis, to be inserted partly into that body, anterior to the Ischiocavernosus, occasionally extending to the pubis, and partly ending in a tendinous expansion which covers the dorsal vessels of the penis. Dividing the muscle longitudinally, and reflecting it from the surface of the corpus cavernosum urethræ best see the latter fibers.

5.10.2        Actions—This muscle serves to empty the canal of the urethra, after the bladder has expelled its contents; during the greater part of the act of micturition its fibers are relaxed, and it only comes into action at the end of the process. The middle fibers are supposed by Krause to assist in the erection of the corpus cavernosum urethræ, by compressing the erectile tissue of the bulb. The anterior fibers, according to Tyrrel, also contribute to the erection of the penis by compressing the deep dorsal vein of the penis, as they are inserted into, and continuous with, the fascia of the penis.

5.11 Category

5.11.1        Perineum  (PRN)

5.12 View

5.12.1        Ventral

5.12.1.1Illus. (DSL)

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6    CILIARY MUSCLE B18E18

Back Table of Contents References 

6.1  Attachments

6.1.1  Origin

6.1.1.1   Scleral spur (posterior margin)

6.1.2  Insertion

6.1.2.1   Stroma of the choroid

6.1.2.2   Ciliary processes

6.1.2.3   Orbiculus ciliaris

6.2  Action Illus. (DSL)

6.2.1  Modify the shape of the lens to adjust for near (lens thickening) or distant Vision (lens thinning)

6.3  Nerve Supply

6.3.1  Near vision

6.3.1.1             Parasympathetic fibers through the Oculomotor nerve (III), from Edinger-Westphal nucleus

6.3.2  Distant vision

6.3.2.1             Sympathetic fibers from the superior cervical ganglion passing into the eye as the long ciliary nerves

6.4  Arterial supply

6.4.1  Long posterior and anterior ciliary rami from the ophthalmic and lacrimal branches of the internal carotid artery

6.5  Synergists

6.5.1  None

6.6  Muscle Tests

6.6.1  CILIARY

6.7  Trigger Points

6.7.1  CILIARY

6.8  Organ Reflexes

6.8.1  None

6.8.2  Illustrations

6.9  Meridian

6.9.1  None

6.10 Antagonists

6.10.1        Parasympathetic and Sympathetic fibers produce antagonistic effects

6.10.2        Parasympathetic fibers

6.10.2.1          Contract the ciliary muscle thereby relaxing the zonal fibers which suspend the lens at its periphery

6.10.2.2          The relaxed lens thickens

6.10.3        Sympathetic fibers

6.10.3.1          Act upon arteries in ciliary body

6.10.3.2          Vasomotor activity increases tension in lens zonal fibers and produces a thinning of the lens

6.11 Discussion (Gray)

6.11.1        The Ciliaris muscle (m. ciliaris; Bowman’s muscle) consists of unstriped fibers: it forms a grayish, semitransparent, circular band, about 3 mm. broad, on the outer surface of the forepart of the choroid. It is thickest in front, and consists of two sets of fibers, meridional and circular. The meridional fibers, much the more numerous, arise from the posterior margin of the scleral spur (page 1007); they run backward, and are attached to the ciliary processes (Fig. 875) and orbiculus ciliaris (Fig. 875).  One bundle, according to Waldeyer, is inserted into the sclera. The circular fibers are internal to the meridional ones, and in a meridional section appear as a triangular zone behind the filtration angle and close to the circumference of the iris. They are well developed in hypermetropic, but are rudimentary or absent in myopic eyes. The Ciliaris muscle is the chief agent in accommodation, i.e., in adjusting the eye to the vision of near objects. When it contracts it, draws forward the ciliary processes, relaxes the suspensory ligament of the lens, and thus allows the lens to become more convex.

6.11.2        Definitions

6.11.2.1          The Ciliary Body (corpus ciliare) —The ciliary body comprises the orbiculus ciliaris, and the Ciliaris muscle

6.11.2.2          The orbiculus ciliaris is a zone of about 4 mm. in width, directly continuous with the anterior part of the choroid; it presents numerous ridges arranged in a radial manner), the ciliary processes.  

6.11.2.3          The ciliary processes (processus ciliares) are formed by the inward folding of the various layers of the choroid, i.e., the choroid proper and the lamina basalis, and are received between corresponding foldings of the suspensory ligament of the lens.

6.11.2.4          Stroma of the choroid Interspersed between the vessels are dark star-shaped pigment cells, the processes of which, communicating with those of neighbouring cells, form a delicate net-work or stroma, which toward the inner surface of the choroid loses its pigmentary character. The inner layer (lamina choriocapillaris) consists of an exceedingly fine capillary plexus, formed by the short ciliary vessels; the network is closer and finer in the posterior than in the anterior part of the choroid. About 1.25 cm. behind the cornea its meshes become larger, and are continuous with those of the ciliary processes. This lamina is connected by a stratum intermedium consisting of fine elastic fibers. On the inner surface of the lamina choriocapillaris is a very thin, structureless, or faintly fibrous membrane, called the lamina basalis; it is closely connected with the stroma of the choroid, and separates it from the pigmentary layer of the retina.

6.11.2.5          The Sclera —The sclera has received its name from its extreme density and hardness; it is a firm, unyielding membrane, serving to maintain the form of the bulb. It is much thicker behind than in front; the thickness of its posterior part is 1 mm.

6.11.2.6          The Cornea —The cornea is the projecting transparent part of the external tunic, and forms the anterior sixth of the surface of the bulb.

6.11.2.7          The Iris —The iris has received its name from its various colors in different individuals. It is a thin, circular, contractile disk, suspended in the aqueous humour between the cornea and lens, and perforated a little to the nasal side of its center by a circular aperture, the pupil.

6.11.3        Additional Illustrations

6.11.3.1          (Fig. 869)

6.11.3.2          (Fig. 870)

6.11.3.3          (Fig. 872)

6.11.3.4          (Fig. 873)

6.11.3.5          (Fig. 874)

6.11.3.6          (Fig. 875)

6.11.3.7          (Fig.876)

6.12 Category

6.12.1        Eye Ball (EB)

6.13 View

6.13.1        (Note: Lower two s are enlarged horizontal sections.)

6.13.1.1Illus. (DSL)

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7    COCCYGEUS (ISCHIOCOCCYGEUS) B19E19

Back Table of Contents References 

7.1  Word Derivation

7.1.1  Coccygeus=Coccyx

7.2  Attachments Illus. 1 (DSL) Illus. 2 (DSL)

7.2.1  Origin

7.2.1.1   Ischial Spine

7.2.2  Insertion

7.2.2.1   Lower Sacrum

7.2.2.2   Upper Coccyx

7.3  Action Illus. (DSL)

7.3.1  Supports and slightly raises pelvic floor

7.3.2  Resists intraabdominal pressure

7.3.3  Pulls coccyx forward following defecation or parturition

7.4  Nerve Supply

7.4.1  Nerve

7.4.1.1             Sacral

7.4.2  Roots

7.4.2.1             S3

7.4.2.2             S4

7.5  Synergists

7.5.1   

7.6  Muscle Tests

7.6.1  COCCYGEUS

7.7  Trigger Points

7.7.1  COCCYGEUS

7.8  Organ Reflexes

7.8.1  None

7.8.2  Illustrations

7.9  Meridian

7.9.1  None

7.10 Discussion (Gray)

7.10.1        The Coccygeus (Fig. 404) is situated behind the preceding. It is a triangular plane of muscular and tendinous fibers, arising by its apex from the spine of the ischium and sacrospinous ligament, and inserted by its base into the margin of the coccyx and into the side of the lowest piece of the sacrum. It assists the Levator Ani and Piriformis in closing in the back part of the outlet of the pelvis.

7.10.2        Nerve Supply —a branch from the fourth and fifth sacral nerves supplies The Coccygeus.

7.10.3        Actions—The Coccygei pull forward and support the coccyx, after it has been pressed backward during defecation or parturition.

7.11 Category

7.11.1        Pelvic Floor (PF)

7.12 View

7.12.1        Ventral

7.12.1.1Illus. (DSL)

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8    CORACOBRACHIALIS B20E20

Back Table of Contents References 

8.1  Word Derivation

8.1.1  Coraco=Coracoid process

8.2  Attachments Illus. (DSL)

8.2.1  Origin

8.2.1.1   Tip of coracoid process of scapula

8.2.2  Insertion

8.2.2.1   Middle of medial border of humerus, opposite deltoid tuberosity

8.3  Joints

8.3.1  Glenohumeral

8.4  Action Illus. (DSL)

8.4.1  Horizontal flexion

8.4.2  Adduction

8.5  Nerve Supply

8.5.1  Nerve

8.5.1.1             Musculocutaneous

8.5.2  Roots

8.5.2.1             C5

8.5.2.2             C6

8.5.2.3             C7

8.6  Synergists

8.6.1  Pectoralis major

8.6.2  Biceps brachii

8.6.3  Anterior deltoid

8.7  Muscle Tests

8.7.1  CORACOBRACHIALIS

8.8  Trigger Points

8.8.1  CORACOBRACHIALIS

8.9  Organ Reflexes

8.9.1  Lung

8.9.2  Illustrations

8.10 Meridian

8.10.1        Lung

8.11 Discussion (Gray)

8.11.1        The Coracobrachialis (Fig. 411) the smallest of the three muscles in this region is situated at the upper and medial part of the arm. It arises from the apex of the coracoid process, in common with the short head of the Biceps brachii, and from the intermuscular septum between the two muscles; it is inserted by means of a flat tendon into an impression at the middle of the medial surface and border of the body of the humerus between the origins of the Triceps brachii and Brachialis. It is perforated by the musculocutaneous nerve

8.11.2        Variations —A bony head may reach the medial epicondyle; a short head more rarely found may insert into the lesser tubercle.

8.11.3        Actions —The Coracobrachialis draws the humerus forward and medialward, and at the same time assists in retaining the head of the bone in contact with the glenoid cavity.

8.12 Category

8.12.1        Arm Scapular (AS)

8.13 View

8.13.1        Anterior

8.13.1.1Illus. (DSL)

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9    CORRUGATOR SUPERCILII B21E21

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9.1  Word Derivation

9.1.1  Corrugo=Wrinkle

9.1.2  Supercilium=Eyebrow

9.2  Attachments

9.3    Origin

9.3.1.1   Medial end of the superciliary arch of the frontal bone

9.4    Insertion

9.4.1.1   Deep surface of the skin above the midpart of the orbital arch

9.5  Action Illus. (DSL)

9.5.1  : Draws eyebrows medially and down (Frowning muscle)

9.6  Nerve Supply

9.6.1  Temporal branches of the facial nerve (VII)

9.7  Artery supply

9.7.1  Supratrochlear (Branch of ophthalmic)

9.7.2  Supraorbital (Branch of ophthalmic)

9.8  Synergists

9.8.1  Orbicularis oculi

9.8.2  Procerus

9.9  Antagonist

9.9.1  Frontalis

9.10 Muscle Tests

9.10.1        CORRUGATOR SUPERCILII

9.11 Trigger Points

9.11.1        CORRUGATOR SUPERCILII

9.12 Organ Reflexes

9.12.1        None

9.12.2        Illustrations

9.13 Meridian

9.13.1        None

9.14 Discussion (Gray)

9.14.1        The Corrugator (Corrugator supercilii) (Fig. 379) is a small, narrow, pyramidal muscle, placed at the medial end of the eyebrow, beneath the Frontalis and Orbicularis oculi. It arises from the medial end of the superciliary arch; and its fibers pass upward and lateralward, between the palpebral and orbital portions of the Orbicularis oculi, and is inserted into the deep surface of the skin, above the middle of the orbital arch.

9.14.2        Note 79 The corrugator is not recognized as a separate muscle in the Basle Nomenclature.

9.14.3        Actions- The Corrugator draws the eyebrow downward and medialward, producing the vertical wrinkles of the forehead. It is the “frowning” muscle, and may be regarded as the principal muscle in the expression of suffering.

9.15 Category

9.15.1        Facial Expression (FE)

9.16 View

9.16.1        Anterior

9.16.1.1Illus. (DSL)

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10    CRICOARYTENOID LATERAL & POSTERIOR B22E22

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