Ultra-Weak Photon Emission
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317 Nakamura K, Hiramatsu M. 2005 Ultra-weak photon emission from human hand: influence of temperature and oxygen concentration on emission J Photochem Photobiol B. 80 2 156 160 We have studied ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) from living organisms. We report here some features of the UPE from human hand by means of photon counting techniques. The intensity of the UPE depended on the position of human hand; nail>finger>palm. As the temperature declined, the intensity of the UPE from the palm decreased. Further, as oxygen concentration around the palm was lowered, the intensity of the UPE from the palm decreased. These results show the UPE from the palm partly contains emissions based on oxidation reaction on skin surface as a potential. When we used mineral oil between the photomultiplier tube and the palm, the intensity of the UPE increased twice as much, which indicates the UPE from the inside of the skin certainly exists. The fact may be explained by refractive index matching. As mentioned above, we considered the generation mechanism of photons emitted from the human hand. http://www.anatomyfacts.com/research/photon.htm http://www.anatomyfacts.com/research/photonhands.pdf 15935689 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?CMD=search&DB=pubmed Electron Tube Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Toyooka, JAPAN and hiramatu@crl.hpk.co.jp
  2 Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Hamakita, JAPAN
  *To whom correspondence should be addressed at: Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Hirakuchi, Hamakita, 434-8601, JAPAN, Phone: 81-53-584-0250; Fax: 81-53-584-0260; e-mail: hiramatu@crl.hpk.co.jp
318 Van Wijk EP, Koch H, Bosman S, Van Wijk R. 2006 Anatomic characterization of human ultra-weak photon emission in practitioners of transcendental meditation(TM) and control subjects J Altern Complement Med 12 1 31 38 BACKGROUND: Research on human ultra-weak photon emission (UPE, biophoton emission) has raised the question whether a typical human emission anatomic percentage distribution pattern exists in addition to individual subject overall anatomic summation intensity differences. The lowest UPE intensities were observed in two subjects who regularly meditate. Spectral analysis of human UPE has suggested that ultra-weak emission is probably, at least in part, a reflection of free radical reactions in a living system. It has been documented that various physiologic and biochemical shifts follow the long-term practice of meditation and it is inferred that meditation may impact free radical activity. OBJECTIVE: To systematically quantify, in subjects with long-term transcendental meditation (TM) experience and subjects without this experience, the UPE emission of the anterior torso, head and neck plus the hands in an attempt to document the differences by the two groups. SUBJECTS: Subjects were 20 men reported to be healthy and nonsmokers. Each of the subjects in the meditation group had practiced TM twice daily for at least the past 10 years. METHODS: UPE in 20 subjects was recorded in a dark room using a highly sensitive, cooled photomultiplier system designed for manipulation in three directions. The protocol for multisite registration of spontaneous emission includes recording of 12 anatomic locations of anterior torso, head, and hands. RESULTS: Data demonstrate emission intensities that are lower in TM practitioners as compared to control subjects. The percent contribution of emission from most anatomic locations was not significantly different for TM practitioners and control subjects. Exceptions are the contributions of throat and palm. CONCLUSION: In subjects with long-term TM experience, the UPE emission is different from control subjects. Data support the hypothesis that free radical reactions can be influenced by TM. http://www.anatomyfacts.com/research/anatomicchar.pdf   16494566 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?CMD=search&DB=pubmed International Institute of Biophysics, Neuss, Germany  
319 Van Wijk EP, Ackerman J, Van Wijk R. 2005 Effect of meditation on ultraweak photon emission from hands and forehead Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 12 2 107 112 BACKGROUND: Various physiologic and biochemical shifts can follow meditation. Meditation has been implicated in impacting free radical activity. Ultraweak photon emission (UPE, biophoton emission) is a constituent of the metabolic processes in a living system. Spectral analysis showed the characteristics of radical reactions. OBJECTIVES: Recording and analysing photon emission in 5 subjects before, during and after meditation. METHODS: UPE in 5 subjects who meditated in sitting or supine positions was recorded in a darkroom utilising a photomultiplier designed for manipulation in three directions. RESULTS: Data indicated that UPE changes after meditation. In 1 subject with high pre-meditation values, UPE decreased during meditation and remained low in the postmeditation phase. In the other subjects, only a slight decrease in photon emission was found, but commonly a decrease was observed in the kurtosis and skewness values of the photon count distribution. A second set of data on photon emission from the hands before and after meditation was collected from 2 subjects. These data were characterised by the Fano factor, F(T), i.e. variance over mean of the number of photoelectrons observed within observation time T. All data were compared to surrogate data sets which were constructed by random shuffling of the data sets. In the pre-meditation period, F(T) increased with observation time, significantly at time windows >6 s. No such effect was found after meditation, when F(T) was in the range of the surrogate data set. CONCLUSIONS: The data support the hypothesis that human photon emission can be influenced by meditation. Data from time series recordings suggest that this non-invasive tool for monitoring radical reactions during meditation is useful to characterise the effect of meditation. Fano factor analysis demonstrated that the time series before meditation do not represent a simple Poisson process. Instead, UPE has characteristics of a fractal process, showing long-range correlations. The effect of meditation waives out this coherence phenomenon, suggesting a weaker and less ordered structure of UPE. In general, meditation seems to influence the complex interactions of oxidative and anti-oxidative reactions which regulate photon emission. The reason for the statistical changes between pre- and post-meditation measurements remains unclear and demands further examination. http://www.anatomyfacts.com/research/effectmeditation.pdf   16086532 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16086532&itool=iconabstr&query_hl=14&itool=pubmed_DocSum International Institute of Biophysics, Neuss, Germany  
320 Wijk EP, Wijk RV. 2005 Multi-site recording and spectral analysis of spontaneous photon emission from human body Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 12 2 96 106 BACKGROUND: In the past years, research on ultraweak photon emission (UPE) from human body has increased for isolated cells and tissues. However, there are only limited data on UPE from the whole body, in particular from the hands. OBJECTIVE: To describe a protocol for the management of subjects that (1) avoids interference with light-induced longterm delayed luminescence, and (2) includes the time slots for recording photon emission. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The protocol was utilised for multi-site recording of 4 subjects at different times of the day and different seasons, and for one subject to complete spectral analysis of emission from different body locations. An especially selected low-noise end-window photomultiplier was utilised for the detection of ultraviolet / visible light (200-650 nm) photon emission. For multi-site recording it was manipulated in three directions in a darkroom with a very low count rate. A series of cut-off filters was used for spectral analysis of UPE. 29 body sites were selected such that the distribution in UPE could be studied as right-left symmetry, dorsal-ventral symmetry, and the ratio between the central body part and extremities. Results: Generally, the fluctuation in photon counts over the body was lower in the morning than in the afternoon. The thorax-abdomen region emitted lowest and most constantly. The upper extremities and the head region emitted most and increasingly over the day. Spectral analysis of low, intermediate and high emission from the superior frontal part of the right leg, the forehead and the palms in the sensitivity range of the photomultiplier showed the major spontaneous emission at 470-570 nm. The central palm area of hand emission showed a larger contribution of the 420-470 nm range in the spectrum of spontaneous emission from the hand in autumn/winter. The spectrum of delayed luminescence from the hand showed major emission in the same range as spontaneous emission. CONCLUSION: Examples of multi-site UPE recordings and spectral analysis revealed individual patterns and dynamics of spontaneous UPE over the body, and spectral differences over the body. The spectral data suggest that measurements might well provide quantitative data on the individual pattern of peroxidative and anti-oxidative processes in vivo. We expect that the measurements provide physiological information that can be useful in clinical examination. http://www.anatomyfacts.com/research/vanwijkspectrum.pdf   15947468 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=15947468 International Institute of Biophysics, Neuss, Germany roeland_van_wijk@meluna.nl
321 Wijk RV, Wijk EP. 2005 An introduction to human biophoton emission Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 12 2 77 83 BACKGROUND: Biophoton emission is the spontaneous emission of ultraweak light emanating from all living systems, including man. The emission is linked to the endogenous production of excited states within the living system. The detection and characterisation of human biophoton emission has led to suggestions that it has potential future applications in medicine. OBJECTIVES: An overview is presented of studies on ultraweak photon emission (UPE, biophotons) from the human whole body. METHODS: Electronic searches of Medline, PsychLit, PubMed and references lists of relevant review articles and books were used to establish the literature database. Articles were then analysed for their main experimental setup and results. RESULTS: The, mostly, single case studies have resulted in a collection of observations. The collection presents information on the following fields of research: (1) influence of biological rhythms, age, and gender on emission, (2) the intensity of emission and its left-right symmetry in health and disease, (3) emission from the perspective of Traditional Chinese and Korean Medicine, (4) emission in different consciousness studies, (5) procedures for analysis of the photon signal from hands, (6) detection of peroxidative processes in the skin. Of each article the main findings are presented in a qualitative manner, quantitative data are presented where useful, and the technological or methodological limitations are discussed. CONCLUSION: Photon emission recording techniques have reached a stage that allows resolution of the signal in time and space. The published material is presented and includes aspects like spatial resolution of intensity, its relation to health and disease, the aspect of colour, and methods for analysis of the photon signal. The limited number of studies only allows first conclusions about the implications and significance of biophotons in relation to health and disease, or to mental states, or acupuncture. However, with the present data we consider that further research in the field is justified. http://www.anatomyfacts.com/research/VanWijIntroduction.pdf   15947465 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=15947465 Utrecht University, The Netherlands. roeland_van_wijk@meluna.nl roeland_van_wijk@meluna.nl
322 Schwabl H, Klima H. 2005 Spontaneous ultraweak photon emission from biological systems and the endogenous light field Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 12 2 84 89 Still one of the most astonishing biological electromagnetic phenomena is the ultraweak photon emission (UPE) from living systems. Organisms and tissues spontaneously emit measurable intensities of light, i.e. photons in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum (380-780 nm), in the range from 1 to 1,000 photons x s-1 x cm-2, depending on their condition and vitality. It is important not to confuse UPE from living systems with other biogenic light emitting processes such as bioluminescence or chemiluminescence. This article examines with basic considerations from physics on the quantum nature of photons the empirical phenomenon of UPE. This leads to the description of the non-thermal origin of this radiation. This is in good correspondence with the modern understanding of life phenomena as dissipative processes far from thermodynamic equilibrium. UPE also supports the understanding of life sustaining processes as basically driven by electromagnetic fields. The basic features of UPE, like intensity and spectral distribution, are known in principle for many experimental situations. The UPE of human leukocytes contributes to an endogenous light field of about 1011 photons x s-1 which can be influenced by certain factors. Further research is needed to reveal the statistical properties of UPE and in consequence to answer questions about the underlying mechanics of the biological system. In principle, statistical properties of UPE allow to reconstruct phase-space dynamics of the light emitting structures. Many open questions remain until a proper understanding of the electromagnetic interaction of the human organism can be achieved: which structures act as receptors and emitters for electromagnetic radiation? How is electromagnetic information received and processed within cells?     15947466 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=15947466 Padma AG, Schwerzenbach, Switzerland. h.schwabl@padma.ch h.schwabl@padma.ch
323 Slawinski J. 2005 Photon emission from perturbed and dying organisms: biomedical perspectives Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 12 2 90 95 Living systems spontaneously emit ultraweak light (ultraweak photon emission, UPE) during the process of metabolic reactions associated with the normal physiological state. Stress factors and pathological states change parameters of that emission, such as intensity, yield, temporal, statistical and spectral characteristics. Thus, properties of UPE are inherently associated with and derived from biochemical and biophysical excitation processes. UPE can be considered as a holistic expression of the perturbation of the physiological state of the bio-system and may carry information on the bioenergetics, kinetics and character of biochemical and physiological processes, functioning of the regulatory feedback systems and the degree of perturbation by internal and external factors. This article presents an overview of the fundamentals of UPE and its relation to physiological processes.     15947467 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=15947467 Dept. of Physical Chemistry, Poznan University of Technology, Poland. dslawins@au.poznan.pl dslawins@au.poznan.pl
324 Kobayashi M, Takeda M, Sato T, Yamazaki Y, Kaneko K, Ito K, Kato H, Inaba H. 1999 In vivo imaging of spontaneous ultraweak photon emission from a rat's brain correlated with cerebral energy metabolism and oxidative stress Neurosci Res 34 2 103 113 Living cells spontaneously emit ultraweak light during the process of metabolic reactions associated with the physiological state. The first demonstration of two-dimensional in vivo imaging of ultraweak photon emission from a rat's brain, using a highly sensitive photon counting apparatus, is reported in this paper. It was found that the emission intensity correlates with the electroencephalographic activity that was measured on the cortical surface and this intensity is associated with the cerebral blood flow and hyperoxia. To clarify the mechanism of photon emission, intensity changes from whole brain slices were examined under various conditions. The removal of glucose from the incubation medium suppressed the photon emission, and adding 50 mM potassium ions led to temporal enhancement of emission and subsequent depression. Rotenone (20 microM), an inhibitor of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, increased photon emission, indicating electron leakage from the respiratory chain. These results suggest that the photon emission from the brain slices originates from the energy metabolism of the inner mitochondrial respiratory chain through the production of reactive oxygen. Imaging of ultraweak photon emission from a brain constitutes a novel method, with the potential to extract pathophysiological information associated with neural metabolism and oxidative dysfunction of the neural cells. http://www.anatomyfacts.com/research/invivo.pdf   10498336 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=10498336 Yamagata Advanced Technology Research and Development Center, Japan.  
325 Slawinska D, Slawinski J. 1991 The role of aminochromes in ultraweak luminescence accompanying oxidative metabolism of catecholamines in model systems in vitro Physiol Chem Phys Med NMR 23 4 247 260 Ultraweak luminescence (UWL) accompanying oxidative transformations of catecholamines (CA) into melanins, particularly adrenaline and noradrenaline in the model system CA + Fe(CN)6(3-) + OH(-) + H2O2 in vitro was investigated by spectroscopic methods. Separate steps of the oxidative transformations from CA to melanins were analyzed with respect to their energetic/spectroscopic properties in order to evaluate the possibility of chemiexcitation and light emission. Results of experiments with pure adrenochrome + H2O2 + OH- provided evidence pointing to the key role of the interaction between aminochromes and active oxygen species.     1812504 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=1812504&query_hl=23&itool=pubmed_docsum Department of Physics, Agricultural University, Poznan, Poland  
326 illablanca M, Indig G, Slawinska D, Slawinski J. 1989 Studies on chemiluminescence in the enzymatic and autoxidative transformation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine into eumelanins J Biolumin Chemilumin 3 4 181 190 The catechol oxidase-catalysed and autoxidative transformation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to eumelanin have been studied by oxygen consumption, energy transfer, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Formation of transient dopachrome (lambda max = 480 nm) and dopalutin (lambda ex = 423 nm, lambda em = 491 nm) have been found in the enzymatic and autoxidative reaction. In the enzymatic reaction, neither a photon emission with quantum yield phi greater than 10(-13) nor energy transfer to triplet and singlet energy acceptors (sensitizers such as anthracene derivatives, xanthene dyes and chlorophyll-a) in water and micellar solutions have been found. The autoxidative reaction is chemiluminescent (phi = 10(-9)), the emission occurring in the 400-600 nm range. The excitation energy is not transferred to sensitizers. The effect of various enzymes and traps of active oxygen species as well as the spectral distribution of chemiluminescence indicate that there is no emission from oxygen dimoles. Carbonates and active species of oxygen are shown to participate in the chemiexcitation reaction.     2508433 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=2508433&query_hl=23&itool=pubmed_docsum Department of Biochemistry, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil  
327 Cohen S, Popp FA. 2003 Biophoton emission of human body Indian J Exp Biol. 41 5 440 445 For the first time systematic measurements of the "ultraweak" photon emission of the human body (biophotons) have been performed by means of a photon detector device set up in darkness. About 200 persons have been investigated. In a particular case one person has been examined daily over several months. It turned out that this biophoton emission reflects, (i) the left-right symmetry of the human body; (ii) biological rhythms such as 14 days, 1 month, 3 months and 9 months; (iii) disease in terms of broken symmetry between left and right side; and (iv) light channels in the body, which regulate energy and information transfer between different parts. The results show that besides a deeper understanding of health, disease and body field, this method provides a new powerful tool of non-invasive medical diagnosis in terms of basic regulatory functions of the body.     15244265 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=15244265&itool=iconabstr&query_hl=33&itool=pubmed_docsum International Institute of Biophysics, Biophoton Research, Station Hombroich, Kapellener Strasse, D-41472 Neuss, Germany.  
328 Popp FA. 2003 Properties of biophotons and their theoretical implications Indian J Exp Biol 41 5 391 402 The word "biophotons" is used to denote a permanent spontaneous photon emission from all living systems. It displays a few up to some hundred photons/(s x cm2) within the spectral range from at least 260 to 800 nm. It is closely linked to delayed luminescence (DL) of biological tissues which describes the long term and ultra weak reemission of photons after exposure to light illumination. During relaxation DL turns continuously into the steady state biophoton emission, where both, DL and biophoton emission exhibit mode coupling over the entire spectrum and a Poissonian photo count distribution. DL is representing excited states of the biophoton field. The physical properties indicate that biophotons originate from fully coherent and sometimes even squeezed states. The physical analysis provides thermodynamic and quantum optical interpretation, in order to understand the biological impacts of biophotons. Biological phenomena like intracellular and intercellular communication, cell growth and differentiation, interactions among biological systems (like "Gestaltbildung" or swarming), and microbial infections can be understood in terms of biophotons. "Biophotonics", the corresponding field of applications, provide a new powerful tool for assessing the quality of food (like freshness and shelf life), microbial infections, environmental influences and for substantiating medical diagnosis and therapy. http://www.anatomyfacts.com/research/PropertiesBioph.pdf   15244259 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=15244259 International Institute of Biophysics, Ehem.Raketenstation, Kapellener Strasse o.N., D-41472 Neuss, Germany. a0221@rrz.uni_koeln.de iib@lifescientists.de
329 Popp FA, Li KH, Mei WP, Galle M, Neurohr R. 1988 Physical aspects of biophotons Experientia 15 44 576 585 By comparing the theoretically expected results of photon emission from a chaotic (thermal) field and those of an ordered (fully coherent) field with the actual experimental data, one finds ample indications for the hypothesis that 'biophotons' originate from a coherent field occurring within living tissues. A direct proof may be seen in the hyperbolic relaxation dynamics of spectral delayed luminescence under ergodic conditions. A possible mechanism has to be founded on Einstein's balance equation and, under stationary conditions, on energy conservation including a photochemical potential. It is shown that the considered equations deliver, besides the thermal equilibrium, a conditionally stable region far away from equilibrium, which can help to describe both 'biophoton emission' and biological regulation. http://www.anatomyfacts.com/research/Experientia.pdf   3294033 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=3294033 Institute of Biophysical Cell Research, Technology Center, Kaiserslautern, Federal Republic of Germany. iib@lifescientists.de
330 Popp FA, Nagl W, Li KH, Scholz W, Weingartner O, Wolf R. 1984 Biophoton emission. New evidence for coherence and DNA as source Cell Biophys 6 1 33 52 The phenomenon of ultraweak photon emission from living systems was further investigated in order to elucidate the physical properties of this radiation and its possible source. We obtained evidence that the light has a high degree of coherence because of (1) its photon count statistics, (2) its spectral distribution, (3) its decay behavior after exposure to light illumination, and (4) its transparency through optically thick materials. Moreover, DNA is apparently at least an important source, since conformational changes induced with ethidium bromide in vivo are clearly reflected by changes of the photon emission of cells. The physical properties of the radiation are described, taking DNA as an exciplex laser system, where a stable state can be reached far from thermal equilibrium at threshold. http://www.anatomyfacts.com/research/biophotons.pdf   6204761 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=6204761   iib@lifescientists.de
331 Van Wijk R, Kobayashi M, Van Wijk EP. 2006 Anatomic characterization of human ultra-weak photon emission
with a moveable photomultiplier and CCD imaging
J Photochem Photobiol B. 83 1 69 76 Ultra-weak photon emission of a living system has received scientific attention because of its potential for monitoring oxidative metabolism and oxidative damage to tissues. Heretofore, most studies have focused only on the emission from hands. The data regarding emission from other anatomic locations are limited. A previous multi-anatomic site recording of four subjects quantitatively demonstrated that the emission from several corresponding anatomic locations could differ by as much as a factor of 4. The data also suggested a ‘‘common’’ anatomic emission percentage distribution pattern. This information raised the question whether such a typical anatomic percentage emission exists. The objective of the present paper is to systematically replicate the emission from identical anatomic locations to document whether the anatomic percentage distribution pattern is generic. Part 1 includes the recording of ultra-weak photon emission from one sample subject over the torso, head and upper extremities with a highly sensitive charge-coupled device (CCD). Part 2 includes the analysis of that data to select a series of anatomic locations that were subsequently studied with a group of 20 subjects utilizing a highly sensitive, cooled and moveable (in three directions) photomultiplier system. Total sum emission of all recorded anatomic locations per subject fluctuates in this study almost 5-fold between subjects. However, the contribution of each anatomic location to the total emission from each subject was approximately the same percentage for each subject and similar to the sample CCD subject. The deviation of the anatomic percentage contribution for each subject was also established. The study presents evidence that there is a ‘‘common’’ anatomic percentage distribution pattern of ultra-weak photon emission for corresponding locations from each subject. http://www.anatomyfacts.com/Research/anatomic.pdf   16413197 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16413197&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsum nternational Institute of Biophysics, Raketenstation, Kapellener Strasse, D-41472 Neuss, Germany meluna.wijk@wxs.nl